Chuck Yeager

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Chuck Yeager
Birth nameCharles Elwood Yeager
Born (1923-02-13) February 13, 1923 (age 97)
Myra, West Virginia, U.S.
Allegiance United States
Service/branchUS Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg United States Army Air Forces
 United States Air Force
Years of service1941–1975
RankUS-O7 insignia.svg Brigadier general
  • Glennis Dickhouse
    (m. 1945; her death 1990)
  • Victoria Scott D'Angelo
    (m. 2003)
RelationsSteve Yeager (cousin)
Other workFlight instructor and test pilot
SignatureChuck Yeager signature.SVG

Charles Elwood Yeager (/ˈjɡər/; born February 13, 1923) is a former United States Air Force officer, flying ace, and record setting test pilot. In 1947, he became the first pilot in history confirmed to have exceeded the speed of sound in level flight.

Yeager's career began in World War II as a private in the United States Army Air Forces in 1941.[a] After serving as an aircraft mechanic, in September 1942 he entered enlisted pilot training and upon graduation was promoted to the rank of flight officer (the World War II USAAF equivalent to warrant officer), later achieving most of his aerial victories as a P-51 fighter pilot on the Western Front.

After the war, Yeager became a test pilot of many types of aircraft, including experimental rocket-powered aircraft. As the first human to officially break the sound barrier, on October 14, 1947, he flew the experimental Bell X-1 at Mach 1 and an altitude of 45,000 feet (13,700 m), for which he won both the Collier and Mackay trophies in 1948. He then went on to break several other speed and altitude records.

Yeager later commanded fighter squadrons and wings in Germany, as well as in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. In recognition of the outstanding performance ratings of those units, he was promoted to brigadier general in 1969, retiring on March 1, 1975. Yeager's three war active duty flying career spans more than 30 years and has taken him to many parts of the world, including the Soviet Union during the height of the Cold War.

Early life and education[edit]

Yeager was born February 13, 1923, to farming parents Susie Mae (née Sizemore; 1898–1987)[2] and Albert Hal Yeager (1896–1963)[3] in Myra, West Virginia.[4] When he was five, his family moved to Hamlin, West Virginia. He attended Hamlin High School, where he played basketball and football, receiving his best grades in geometry and typing. He graduated from high school in June 1941.[5] Yeager had two brothers, Roy and Hal Jr., and two sisters, Doris Ann (accidentally killed at age 2 by 6-year-old Roy playing with a shotgun)[6][7] and Pansy Lee. His first experience with the military was as a teen at the Citizens Military Training Camp at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indianapolis, Indiana, during the summers of 1939 and 1940. On February 26, 1945, Yeager married Glennis Dickhouse, and the couple had four children. Glennis died in 1990.[8]

The name "Yeager" (/ˈjɡər/) is an Anglicized form of the German name Jäger or Jaeger (German: "hunter"). He is the cousin of former baseball catcher Steve Yeager.[9][b]


World War II[edit]

Yeager enlisted as a private in the U.S. Army Air Forces (USAAF) on September 12, 1941, and became an aircraft mechanic at George Air Force Base, Victorville, California. At enlistment, Yeager was not eligible for flight training because of his age and educational background, but the entry of the U.S. into World War II less than three months later prompted the USAAF to alter its recruiting standards. Having unusually sharp vision (a visual acuity rated 20/10), which once enabled him to shoot a deer at 600 yards (550 m),[11] Yeager displayed natural talent as a pilot and was accepted for flight training.

At the time of his flight training acceptance, he was a crew chief on an AT-11.[12] He received his pilot wings and a promotion to flight officer at Luke Field, Arizona, where he graduated from Class 43C on March 10, 1943. Assigned to the 357th Fighter Group at Tonopah, Nevada, he initially trained as a fighter pilot, flying Bell P-39 Airacobras (being grounded for seven days for clipping a farmer's tree during a training flight),[13] and shipped overseas with the group on November 23, 1943.

P-51D-20NA, Glamorous Glen III, is the aircraft in which Yeager achieved most of his aerial victories.

Stationed in the United Kingdom at RAF Leiston, Yeager flew P-51 Mustangs in combat with the 363d Fighter Squadron. He named his aircraft Glamorous Glen[14][15] after his girlfriend, Glennis Faye Dickhouse, who became his wife in February 1945. Yeager had gained one victory before he was shot down over France in his first aircraft (P-51B-5-NA s/n 43-6763) on March 5, 1944 during his eighth mission.[16] He escaped to Spain on March 30 with the help of the Maquis (French Resistance) and returned to England on May 15, 1944. During his stay with the Maquis, Yeager assisted the guerrillas in duties that did not involve direct combat; he helped construct bombs for the group, a skill that he had learned from his father.[17] He was awarded the Bronze Star for helping a B-24 navigator, "Pat" Patterson, who was shot in the knee during the escape attempt, to cross the Pyrenees. Yeager cut off the tendon by which Patterson's leg was hanging below the knee, then tied off the leg with a spare shirt made of parachute silk.[18]

Despite a regulation prohibiting "evaders" (escaped pilots) from flying over enemy territory again, the purpose of which was to prevent a second capture from compromising resistance groups, Yeager was reinstated to flying combat. He had joined another evader, fellow P-51 pilot 1st Lt Fred Glover,[19] in speaking directly to the Supreme Allied Commander, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, on June 12, 1944. With Glover pleading their case, they argued that because the Allies had invaded France and the Maquis were by then openly fighting the Nazis alongside Allied troops, if Yeager or Glover were shot down again, there was little about those who had previously helped them evade capture that could be revealed to the enemy.

Eisenhower, after gaining permission from the War Department to decide the requests, concurred with Yeager and Glover. Yeager later credited his postwar success in the Air Force to this decision, saying that his test pilot career followed naturally from his having been a decorated combat pilot, along with having been an aircraft mechanic before attending pilot school. In part, because of his maintenance background, he also frequently served as a maintenance officer in his flying units.

Yeager demonstrated outstanding flying skills and combat leadership. On October 12, 1944, he became the first pilot in his group to make "ace in a day," downing five enemy aircraft in a single mission. Two of these kills were scored without firing a single shot: when he flew into firing position against a Messerschmitt Bf 109, the pilot of the aircraft panicked, breaking to starboard and colliding with his wingman. Yeager said both pilots bailed out. He finished the war with 11.5 official victories, including one of the first air-to-air victories over a jet fighter, a German Messerschmitt Me 262 that he shot down as it was on final approach for landing.[20][21]

In his 1986 memoirs, Yeager recalled with disgust that "atrocities were committed by both sides", and he said he went on a mission with orders from the Eighth Air Force to "strafe anything that moved."[22][23] During the mission briefing, he whispered to Major Donald H. Bochkay, "If we are going to do things like this, we sure as hell better make sure we are on the winning side."[22][23] Yeager said, "I'm certainly not proud of that particular strafing mission against civilians. But it is there, on the record and in my memory."[24] He has also expressed bitterness at his treatment in England during WWII, describing the British as "arrogant" and "nasty".[25]

Yeager was commissioned a second lieutenant while at Leiston, and was promoted to captain before the end of his tour. He flew his 61st and final mission on January 15, 1945 and returned to the United States in early February. As an evader, he received his choice of assignments and, because his new wife was pregnant, chose Wright Field to be near his home in West Virginia. His high number of flight hours and maintenance experience qualified him to become a functional test pilot of repaired aircraft, which brought him under the command of Colonel Albert Boyd, head of the Aeronautical Systems Flight Test Division.[26]

Post-World War II[edit]

Test pilot – breaking the sound barrier[edit]

Yeager broke the sound barrier on October 14, 1947 in the X-1.

Yeager remained in the Air Force after the war, becoming a test pilot at Muroc Army Air Field (now Edwards Air Force Base), following graduation from Air Materiel Command Flight Performance School (Class 46C).[27] After Bell Aircraft test pilot Chalmers "Slick" Goodlin demanded $150,000 (over $1.7 million in 2020 dollars) to break the sound "barrier," the USAAF selected Yeager to fly the rocket-powered Bell XS-1 in a NACA program to research high-speed flight.[28][29]

Yeager in front of the Bell X-1, which, as with all of the aircraft assigned to him, he named Glamorous Glennis (or some variation thereof), after his wife.
Yeager in the Bell X-1 cockpit
Yeager in 1950

Such was the difficulty in this task that the answer to many of the inherent challenges was along the lines of "Yeager better have paid-up insurance."[30] Two nights before the scheduled date for the flight, Yeager broke two ribs when he fell from a horse. He was worried that the injury would remove him from the mission and reported that he went to a civilian doctor in nearby Rosamond, who taped his ribs.[31][c] Yeager told only his wife, as well as friend and fellow project pilot Jack Ridley, about the accident. On the day of the flight, Yeager was in such pain that he could not seal the X-1's hatch by himself. Ridley rigged up a device, using the end of a broom handle as an extra lever, to allow Yeager to seal the hatch.

Yeager broke the sound barrier on October 14, 1947, flying the X-1 Glamorous Glennis at Mach 1.05 at an altitude of 45,000 feet (13,700 m).[32][d] over the Rogers Dry Lake in the Mojave Desert. The success of the mission was not announced to the public until June 1948.[36] Yeager was awarded the Mackay Trophy and the Collier Trophy in 1948 for his mach-transcending flight, and the Harmon International Trophy in 1954. The X-1 he flew that day was later put on permanent display at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum.

Yeager went on to break many other speed and altitude records. He was also one of the first American pilots to fly a MiG-15, after its pilot, No Kum-sok, defected to South Korea.[37][38] Returning to Muroc, during the latter half of 1953, Yeager was involved with the USAF team that was working on the X-1A, an aircraft designed to surpass Mach 2 in level flight. That year, he flew a chase aircraft for the civilian pilot Jackie Cochran as she became the first woman to fly faster than sound.[39]

On November 20, 1953 the U.S. Navy program involving the D-558-II Skyrocket and its pilot, Scott Crossfield, became the first team to reach twice the speed of sound. After they were bested, Ridley and Yeager decided to beat rival Crossfield's speed record in a series of test flights that they dubbed "Operation NACA Weep." Not only did they beat Crossfield by setting a new record at Mach 2.44 on December 12, 1953, but they did it in time to spoil a celebration planned for the 50th anniversary of flight in which Crossfield was to be called "the fastest man alive."[39]

The new record flight, however, did not entirely go to plan, since shortly after reaching Mach 2.44, Yeager lost control of the X-1A at about 80,000 ft (24,000 m) due to inertia coupling, a phenomenon largely unknown at the time. With the aircraft simultaneously rolling, pitching, and yawing out of control, Yeager dropped 51,000 feet (16,000 m) in less than a minute before regaining control at around 29,000 feet (8,800 m). He then managed to land without further incident.[39] For this achievement, Yeager was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal (DSM) in 1954.[e]

Military command[edit]

Yeager, as Commandant of the USAF Aerospace Research Pilot School with a model of the North American X-15

Yeager was foremost a fighter pilot and held several squadron and wing commands. From May 1955 to July 1957, he commanded the F-86H Sabre-equipped 417th Fighter-Bomber Squadron (50th Fighter-Bomber Wing) at Hahn AB, West Germany, and Toul-Rosieres Air Base, France; and from 1957 to 1960 the F-100D Super Sabre-equipped 1st Fighter Day Squadron (later, while still under Yeager's command, re-designated the 306th Tactical Fighter Squadron) at George Air Force Base, California, and Morón Air Base, Spain.

Now a full colonel[40] in 1962, after completion of a year's studies at the Air War College, Yeager became the first commandant of the USAF Aerospace Research Pilot School, which produced astronauts for NASA and the USAF, after its redesignation from the USAF Flight Test Pilot School. (Yeager himself had only a high school education, so he was not eligible to become an astronaut like those he trained.) Between December 1963 and January 1964,[41] Yeager completed five flights in the NASA M2-F1 lifting body. An accident during a December 1963 test flight in one of the school's NF-104s eventually put an end to his record attempts.

In 1966, Yeager took command of the 405th Tactical Fighter Wing at Clark Air Base, the Philippines, whose squadrons were deployed on rotational temporary duty (TDY) in South Vietnam and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. There he accrued another 414 hours of combat time in 127 missions, mostly in a Martin B-57 Canberra light bomber. In February 1968, Yeager was assigned command of the 4th Tactical Fighter Wing at Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina, and led the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II wing in South Korea during the Pueblo crisis.

On June 22, 1969, Yeager was promoted to brigadier general and was assigned in July as the vice-commander of the Seventeenth Air Force.

From 1971 to 1973, at the behest of Ambassador Joe Farland, Yeager was assigned to Pakistan to advise the Pakistan Air Force.[42] In one of the numerous raids carried out by Indian pilots against Pakistani airfields, Yeager's plane was destroyed while it was parked at Islamabad airport.[43] Edward C. Ingraham, a U.S diplomat who had served as political counselor to Ambassador Farland in Islamabad recalled this incident in the Washington Monthly of October 1985: "After Yeager's Beechcraft was destroyed during an Indian air raid, he raged to his cowering colleagues that the Indian pilot had been specifically instructed by Indira Gandhi to blast his plane. 'It was,' he later wrote, 'the Indian way of giving Uncle Sam the finger.'" [44] After having his twin-engined Beechcraft liaison aircraft destroyed in an Indian air raid on the Chaklala Airbase, he was incensed and demanded U.S. retaliation.[45][46]

Post-retirement career[edit]

Brigadier General Yeager in 2000

On March 1, 1975, following assignments in Germany and Pakistan, Yeager retired from the Air Force at Norton Air Force Base, California, after serving over 33 years on active duty, although he continued to occasionally fly for the USAF and NASA as a consulting test pilot at Edwards AFB.[f]

Yeager made a cameo appearance in the movie The Right Stuff (1983). He played "Fred," a bartender at "Pancho's Place", which was most appropriate, as Yeager said, "if all the hours were ever totaled, I reckon I spent more time at her place than in a cockpit over those years."[47] His own role in the movie was played by Sam Shepard.

For several years in the 1980s, Yeager was connected to General Motors, publicizing AC Delco, the company's automotive parts division.[48] In 1986 he was invited to drive the Chevrolet Corvette pace car for the 70th running of the Indianapolis 500. In 1988, Yeager was again invited to drive the pace car, this time at the wheel of an Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme. In 1986, President Reagan appointed Yeager to the Rogers Commission that investigated the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger.[49]

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Yeager set several light general aircraft performance records for speed, range, and endurance. Most notable were flights conducted on behalf of Piper Aircraft. On one such flight, Yeager performed an emergency landing as a result of fuel exhaustion. On another, he piloted Piper's turboprop Cheyenne 400LS to a time-to-height record: FL350 (35,000 feet) in 16 minutes, exceeding the climb performance of a Boeing 737 at gross weight.

During this time Yeager also served as a technical adviser for three Electronic Arts flight simulator video games. The games include Chuck Yeager's Advanced Flight Trainer, Chuck Yeager's Advanced Flight Trainer 2.0, and Chuck Yeager's Air Combat. The game manuals featured quotes and anecdotes from Yeager, and were well received by players. Missions featured several of Yeager's accomplishments and let players attempt to top his records. Chuck Yeager's Advanced Flight Trainer was Electronic Art's top selling game for 1987.[50]

In 2009, Yeager participated in the documentary The Legend of Pancho Barnes and the Happy Bottom Riding Club, a profile of his friend Pancho Barnes. The documentary was screened at film festivals, aired on public television in the United States and won an Emmy Award.[51]

Yeager is fully retired from military test flying, after having maintained that status for three decades after his official retirement from the Air Force. On October 14, 1997, on the 50th anniversary of his historic flight past Mach 1, he flew a new Glamorous Glennis III, an F-15D Eagle, past Mach 1. The chase plane for the flight was an F-16 Fighting Falcon piloted by Bob Hoover, a longtime test, fighter and aerobatic pilot who had been Yeager's wingman for the first supersonic flight. This was supposed to be Yeager's last official flight with the U.S. Air Force. However he was called back into flying with the USAF in 2000 and continued to do so until the end of 2012. At the end of his speech to the crowd in 1997, Yeager concluded, "All that I am ... I owe to the Air Force." Later that month, he was the recipient of the Tony Jannus Award for his achievements.

On October 14, 2012, on the 65th anniversary of breaking the sound barrier, Yeager did it again at the age of 89, flying as co-pilot in a McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle piloted by Captain David Vincent out of Nellis Air Force Base.[52]

Awards and decorations[edit]

Special Congressional Silver Medal awarded to Yeager in 1976

In 1973, Yeager was inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame, arguably aviation's highest honor. In 1974, Yeager received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement.[53] In December 1975, the U.S. Congress awarded Yeager a silver medal "equivalent to a noncombat Medal of Honor ... for contributing immeasurably to aerospace science by risking his life in piloting the X-1 research airplane faster than the speed of sound on October 14, 1947." President Gerald Ford presented the medal to Yeager in a ceremony at the White House on December 8, 1976.[54][g]

Yeager, who never attended college and was often modest about his background, is considered by many, including Flying Magazine, the California Hall of Fame, the State of West Virginia, National Aviation Hall of Fame, a few U.S. presidents, and the United States Army Air Force, to be one of the greatest pilots of all time. Despite his lack of higher education, he has been honored in his home state. Marshall University has named its highest academic scholarship, the Society of Yeager Scholars, in his honor. Yeager was also the chairman of Experimental Aircraft Association's Young Eagle Program from 1994–2004, and has been named the program's chairman emeritus.[56]

In 1966, Yeager was inducted into the International Air & Space Hall of Fame.[57] He was inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame in 1981.[58] He was inducted into the Aerospace Walk of Honor 1990 inaugural class.[59]

Yeager Airport in Charleston, West Virginia, is named in his honor. The Interstate 64/Interstate 77 bridge over the Kanawha River in Charleston is named in his honor. He also flew directly under the Kanahwa Bridge and West Virginia named it to the Chuck E. Yeager Bridge. On October 19, 2006, the state of West Virginia also honored Yeager with a marker along Corridor G (part of US Highway 119) in his home Lincoln County, and also renamed part of the highway the Yeager Highway.[60]

Yeager is an honorary board member of the humanitarian organization Wings of Hope.[61] On August 25, 2009, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and Maria Shriver announced that Yeager would be one of 13 California Hall of Fame inductees in The California Museum's yearlong exhibit. The induction ceremony was on December 1, 2009 in Sacramento, California. Flying Magazine ranked Yeager number 5 on its 2013 list of The 51 Heroes of Aviation; he is the highest-ranked living person on the list.[62]

The Civil Air Patrol, the volunteer auxiliary of the USAF, awards the Charles E. "Chuck" Yeager Award to its Senior Members as part of its Aerospace Education program.[63]

Badges, patches and tabs
COMMAND PILOT WINGS.png U.S. Air Force Command Pilot Badge
Personal decorations
Air Force Distinguished Service Medal (retirement award in 1975)
Width-44 white ribbon with width-10 scarlet stripes at edges, separated from the white by width-2 ultramarine blue stripes. Distinguished Service Medal (Army design awarded in 1954)
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Silver Star with bronze oak leaf cluster (for shooting down five Messerschmitt Bf 109s in one day[64])
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Width-44 crimson ribbon with a pair of width-2 white stripes on the edges
Legion of Merit with bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Distinguished Flying Cross with two bronze oak leaf clusters (for a Messerschmitt Me 262 kill[65] and first to break the sound barrier)
Width-44 scarlet ribbon with width-4 ultramarine blue stripe at center, surrounded by width-1 white stripes. Width-1 white stripes are at the edges.
Bronze Star Medal with bronze valor device (for helping rescue a fellow airman from Occupied France[17])
Width-44 purple ribbon with width-4 white stripes on the borders Purple Heart
Silver oak leaf cluster
Silver oak leaf cluster
Air Medal with two silver oak leaf clusters
Air Force Commendation Medal
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Unit awards
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Presidential Unit Citation with bronze oak leaf cluster
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award
Campaign and service medals
American Defense Service Medal
American Campaign Medal
Silver star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with silver and three bronze service stars
World War II Victory Medal
Army of Occupation Medal with "Germany" clasp
Bronze star
Width=44 scarlet ribbon with a central width-4 golden yellow stripe, flanked by pairs of width-1 scarlet, white, Old Glory blue, and white stripes
National Defense Service Medal with star
Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal
Bronze star
Bronze star
Vietnam Service Medal with two campaign stars
Silver oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Air Force Longevity Service Ribbon with one silver and one bronze oak leaf clusters
Air Force Small Arms Expert Marksmanship Ribbon
Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal ribbon, with 60- clasp.svg Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal

Other achievements[edit]

Gen Chuck Yeager Cadet Squadron (SER-FL-237)
Official emblem of the General Chuck Yeager Cadet Squadron (Civil Air Patrol)

Personal life[edit]

Yeager named his plane after his wife Glennis as a good-luck charm; "You're my good-luck charm, hon. Any airplane I name after you always brings me home."[71] Yeager and Glennis moved to Grass Valley, California, after his retirement from the Air Force in 1975. The couple prospered because of Yeager's best-selling autobiography, speaking engagements and commercial ventures.[72] Glennis Yeager died of ovarian cancer in 1990. They had four children (Susan, Don, Mickey and Sharon).[73]

In 2000, Yeager met actress Victoria Scott D'Angelo on a hiking trail in Nevada County. The pair started dating shortly thereafter, and married in August 2003.[74]Subsequent to the commencement of their relationship, a bitter dispute arose between Yeager, his children and D'Angelo. The children contended that D'Angelo, 35 years Yeager's junior, had married him for his fortune. Yeager and D'Angelo both denied the charge. Litigation ensued, in which his children accused D'Angelo of "undue influence" on Yeager, and Yeager accused his children of diverting millions of dollars from his assets.[75] In August 2008, the California Court of Appeal ruled for Yeager, finding that his daughter Susan had breached her duty as trustee.[76][77]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Yeager had not been in an airplane prior to January 1942, when his Engineering Officer invited him on a test flight after maintenance of an AT-11. He related that he got really sick on the flight: "After puking all over myself I said, 'Yeager, you made a big mistake'".[1]
  2. ^ Chuck Yeager is not related to Jeana Yeager, one of the two pilots of the Rutan Voyager aircraft, which circled the world without landing or refueling.[10]
  3. ^ In some versions of the story, the doctor was a veterinarian; however, local residents have noted that Rosamond was so small that it had neither a medical doctor nor a veterinarian.[31]
  4. ^ There is anecdotal evidence that American pilot George Welch may have broken the sound barrier two weeks before Yeager, while diving an XP-86 Sabre on October 1, 1947, and again on October 14, just 30 minutes before Yeager's X-1 flight. However, the precision instruments used to carefully document the speed of Yeager's flight were not used during Welch's flights.[33] Even earlier, German pilot Lothar Sieber was estimated to have broken the speed of sound during his fatal test-flight of the rocket-powered Bachem Natter on March 1, 1945, although the speed was not officially measured.[34] In his 1990 book Me-163, former Messerschmitt Me 163 "Komet" pilot Mano Ziegler claims that his friend, test pilot Heini Dittmar, broke the sound barrier and that on July 6, 1944 he reached 1,130 km/h in dive, and that several people on the ground heard the sonic booms. There was also a disputed claim by German pilot Hans Guido Mutke that he was the first person to break the sound barrier, on April 9, 1945 in a Me 262.[35]
  5. ^ Yeager received the DSM in the Army design, since the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal was not awarded until 1965.
  6. ^ For his consultant work to the Test Pilot School Commander at Edwards Air Force Base, Yeager was paid one dollar annually, along with all the flying time he wanted. The $1 allowed him to be covered by workers' compensation insurance.
  7. ^ This is apparently a unique award, as the law that created it states it is equivalent to a noncombat Medal of Honor. It is referred to as a Special Congressional Silver Medal in the President's Daily Diary (also see for a list of ceremony attendees).[55]


  1. ^ "My First Time". Air & Space/Smithsonian. Vol. 17 no. 2. June–July 2002. p. 48.
  2. ^ Susie Mae Sizemore Yeager
  3. ^ Albert Hal Yeager
  4. ^ Sullivan, Ken (2006). The West Virginia Encyclopedia. West Virginia Humanities Council. Archived from the original on October 15, 2018. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  5. ^ Chuck Yeager's Humble Beginnings
  6. ^ "Chuck Yeager: What I've Learned". Esquire Magazine. Archived from the original on July 13, 2014. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
  7. ^ Yeager, Chuck & Janos, Leo (1985). Yeager: An Autobiography. New York: Bantam. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-553-25674-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  8. ^ Houvouras, John H. (Winter 1998). "The Man" (PDF). The Huntington Quarterly. p. 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 23, 2015. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  9. ^ Kantowski, Ron (April 6, 2006). "Q+A Steve Yeager". Las Vegas Sun. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved February 26, 2016. He's not my uncle, he's a cousin. That's a misprint. You can't believe everything you read.
  10. ^ "Jeana Yeager Was Not Just Along for the Ride". Los Angeles Times. December 24, 1986. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
  11. ^ Yeager & Janos (1985), p. 297.
  12. ^ Chuck Yeager's Training for War
  13. ^ Take Off. No. 36. p. 991. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  14. ^ "Chuck Yeager downs five – becomes an 'Ace in a Day'". World War II Today. n.d. Archived from the original on January 21, 2015. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  15. ^ "12 October 1944". This Day in Aviation. n.d. Archived from the original on July 7, 2015. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  16. ^ "Escape and Evasion Case File for Flight Officer Charles (Chuck) E. Yeager". Archived from the original on February 18, 2009. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
  17. ^ a b Yeager & Janos (1985), p. 45.
  18. ^ Miller, Donald L. (2007). Masters of the Air: America's Bomber Boys Who Fought the Air War Against Nazi Germany. Simon and Schuster. p. 270. ISBN 9780743235457.
  19. ^ Disney, Ryan (2016). Escape & Evasion Report No. 686: The True Story of an American Fighter Pilot's Escape from Nazi-Occupied France. Amazon Digital Services. ASIN B01N9LBA0H.
  20. ^ Niderost, Eric. "Chuck Yeager: Fighter Pilot". Warfare History Network. Archived from the original on March 29, 2018. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  21. ^ "Encounter Report". November 6, 1944. Archived from the original on February 22, 2018. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  22. ^ a b Samuel, Wolfgang W. E. (2004). American Raiders: The Race to Capture the Luftwaffe's Secrets. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. p. 454. ISBN 978-1-57806-649-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  23. ^ a b Coady, C. A. J. (2008). Morality and Political Violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-521-70548-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  24. ^ Yeager & Janos (1985), pp. 63, 80.
  25. ^ Boult, Adam (October 5, 2016). "WWII flying ace Chuck Yeager in extraordinary attack on 'nasty' and 'arrogant' British people". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on February 26, 2018. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
  26. ^ Yeager & Janos (1985), p. 60.
  27. ^ "Getting schooled with the Air Force's elite test pilots". CNET. Archived from the original on September 6, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  28. ^ Yeager & Janos (1985), p. 121.
  29. ^ Wolfe, Tom (1979). The Right Stuff. New York: Farrar-Straus-Giroux. pp. 52–53. ISBN 0-374-25033-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  30. ^ Yeager & Janos (1985), p. 157.
  31. ^ a b Ryan, Craig (2015). Sonic Wind: The Story of John Paul Stapp and How a Renegade Doctor Became the Fastest Man on Earth. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 98–99. ISBN 9781631490798. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
  32. ^ "New U.S. Plane Said to Fly Faster Than Speed of Sound". The New York Times. December 22, 1947. Archived from the original on July 23, 2018. An experimental rocket plane, the Bell XS-1, has flown faster than the speed of sound a number of times recently, Aviation Week reports in an issue to be released tomorrow.
  33. ^ Blackburn, Al (January 1999). "Mach match: Did an XP-86 beat Yeager to the punch?". Smithsonian Air & Space Magazine. Archived from the original on May 11, 2014. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  34. ^ Donnelly, Marea (October 13, 2017). "Pilot Chuck Yeager's resolve to break the sound barrier was made of the right stuff". The Daily Telegraph. Newscorp Australia. Archived from the original on October 18, 2017. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
  35. ^ Yoon, Joe (October 7, 2004). "Me 262 & the Sound Barrier". Aerospaceweb. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  36. ^ "This day in history: Yeager breaks the sound barrier". Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  37. ^ Clark, Mark (1954). From the Danube to the Yalu. New York: Harper. p. 208.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  38. ^ Kum-Suk, No & Osterholm, J. Roger (2007). A MiG-15 to Freedom: Memoir of the Wartime North Korean Defector who First Delivered the Secret Fighter Jet to the Americans in 1953. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. p. 158. ISBN 0-7864-0210-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  39. ^ a b c Yeager & Janos (1985), p. 252.
  40. ^ "Yeager (n.d.). To New Heights: 1961–1975". Archived from the original on September 26, 2013. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
  41. ^ "The Crash of Chuck Yeager's NF-104A". December 10, 1963. Archived from the original on December 7, 2004 – via
  42. ^ Yeager & Janos (1985), p. 391.
  43. ^ Yeager & Janos (1985), p. 398.
  44. ^ "The Right Stuff in the Wrong Place". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on September 9, 2017. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
  45. ^
  46. ^ Mansoor Shah (2002). The Gold Bird: Pakistan and Its Air Force--observations of a Pilot. Oxford University. pp. 230–250.
  47. ^ Yeager & Janos (1985), p. 172.
  48. ^ Yeager & Janos (1985), p. 418.
  49. ^ "Brigadier General Charles E. Yeager". The 456th Fighter Interceptor Squadron. Archived from the original on July 24, 2011. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
  50. ^ "Chuck Yeager's Advanced Flight Trainer". Moby Games. Archived from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  51. ^ "The Legend of Pancho Barnes and the Happy Bottom Riding Club". Archived from the original on May 23, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013.
  52. ^ Rogers, Keith (October 12, 2012). "Famous pilot Yeager re-enacting right stuff 65 years later". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Archived from the original on September 10, 2018.
  53. ^ "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". American Academy of Achievement.
  54. ^ "Public Law 94-179". United States Statutes. Retrieved September 10, 2012 – via Wikisource.
  55. ^ "The Daily Diary of President Gerald R. Ford: December 8, 1976" (PDF). The White House. December 8, 1976. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 20, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2012 – via Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library.
  56. ^ Ford, Harrison (September 2010). "Freedom and Responsibility". Sport Aviation.
  57. ^ Sprekelmeyer, Linda, ed. (2006). These We Honor: The International Aerospace Hall of Fame. Donning. ISBN 978-1-57864-397-4.
  58. ^ Harbert, Nancy (September 27, 1981). "Hall to Induct Seven Space Pioneers". Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque, New Mexico. p. 53. Retrieved March 27, 2019 – via
  59. ^ Kaplan, Tracey (September 23, 1990). "Ground-Level Monuments Honor Heroes of the Air". The Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California. p. 840 – via
  60. ^ "Yeager Comes Home". WOWK-TV. August 19, 2006. Archived from the original on November 10, 2006.
  61. ^ "Chuck Yeager". Wings of Hope. Archived from the original on December 18, 2015. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
  62. ^ "Chuck Yeager". Flying Magazine's 51 Heroes of Aviation. August 19, 2013. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  63. ^ "Yeager Award". Civil Air Patrol. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  64. ^ Yeager & Janos (1985), p. 73.
  65. ^ Yeager & Janos (1985), p. 76.
  66. ^ Harry S. Truman - The President's Day, November 2, 1950
  67. ^ Harmon Prizes go for 2 Air 'Firsts'; Vertical-Flight Test Pilot and Airship Endurance Captain Are 1955 Winners, New York Times, July 5, 1955
  68. ^ Yeager & Janos (1985), pp. 413–414.
  69. ^ "Three to Share Collier Trophy". The Semi-Weekly Spokesman-Review. Spokane, Washington. Associated Press. December 15, 1948. p. 15 – via
  70. ^ NAA list of Mackay Trophy Winners Archived 2007-02-28 at the Wayback Machine
  71. ^ Frost, John (1990). How is it done?. London: The Reader's Digest Association Limited. p. 202.
  72. ^ Moller, Dave (February 19, 2004). "Yeager children sue their father". The Union. Nevada County, California. Archived from the original on August 20, 2012. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
  73. ^ Tresniowski, Alex (March 8, 2004). "The Wife Stuff: Feuds, Trials & Lawsuits, Bills, Bills, Bills, Chuck Yeager". People. Archived from the original on August 9, 2011. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
  74. ^ Costantinou, Marianne (February 18, 2004). "Chuck Yeager is in love. Three of his kids doubt his new wife, who's half his age, is made of the right stuff. They're suing". Retrieved February 6, 2020.
  75. ^ Hubler, Shawn (July 2, 2004). "Far from heavens". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
  76. ^ "C.A. rules against Chuck Yeager's daughter in dispute with stepmother". MetNews. August 26, 2008. Archived from the original on December 18, 2012. Retrieved November 30, 2012.
  77. ^ Yeager v. D'Angelo, C052483 (Cal.App.3rd August 22, 2008).

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]