The Force is a metaphysical and ubiquitous power in the Star Wars fictional universe. It is wielded by "Force-sensitive" characters throughout the franchise: heroes like the Jedi who seek to become one with the Force, while the Sith and other villains exploit the Force and try to bend it toward their will. The Force has been compared to aspects of several world religions, and the phrase "May the Force be with you" has become part of the popular-culture vernacular.
Concept and development
Creation for the original films
George Lucas created the concept of the Force to address character and plot developments in Star Wars (1977). He also wanted to "awaken a certain kind of spirituality" in young audiences, suggesting a belief in God without endorsing any specific religion. He developed the Force as a nondenominational religious concept, "distill[ed from] the essence of all religions", premised on the existence of God and distinct ideas of good and evil. Lucas said that there is a conscious choice between good and bad, and "the world works better if you're on the good side". In 1970s San Francisco, where Lucas lived when he wrote the drafts that became Star Wars, New Age ideas that incorporated the concept of qi and other notions of a mystical life-force were "in the air" and widely embraced.
Lucas used the term the Force to "echo" its use by cinematographer Roman Kroitor in 21-87 (1963), in which Kroitor says, "Many people feel that in the contemplation of nature and in communication with other living things, they become aware of some kind of force, or something, behind this apparent mask which we see in front of us, and they call it God". Although Lucas had Kroitor's line in mind specifically, Lucas said the underlying sentiment is universal and that "similar phrases have been used extensively by many different people for the last 13,000 years".
The first draft of Star Wars makes two references to "the Force of Others" and does not explain the concept: King Kayos utters the blessing "May the Force of Others be with you all", and he later says "I feel the Force also". The power of the Force of Others is kept secret by the Jedi Bendu of the Ashla, an "aristocratic cult" in the second draft. The second draft offers a lengthy explanation of the Force of Others and introduces its Ashla light side and Bogan dark side. The Ashla and Bogan are mentioned 10 and 31 times, respectively, and the Force of Others plays a more prominent role in the story. In this draft, Luke Starkiller's mission is to retrieve the Kyber Crystal, which can intensify either the Ashla or Bogan powers. The film's shorter third draft has no references to the Ashla, but it mentions the Bogan eight times and Luke is still driven to recover the Kyber Crystal.
Lucas finished the fourth and near-final draft on January 1, 1976. This version trims "the Force of Others" to "the Force", makes a single reference to the Force's seductive "dark side", distills an explanation of the Force to 28 words, and eliminates the Kyber Crystal. Producer Gary Kurtz, who studied comparative religion in college, had long discussions with Lucas about religion and philosophy throughout the writing process. Kurtz told Lucas he was unhappy with drafts in which the Force was connected with the Kyber Crystal, and he was also dissatisfied with the early Ashla and Bogan concepts.
Lucas and screenwriter Leigh Brackett decided that the Force and the Emperor would be the main concerns in The Empire Strikes Back (1980). The focus on the Emperor was later shifted to the third film, Return of the Jedi (1983), and the dark side of the Force was treated as The Empire Strikes Back's main villain.
Prequel films and midi-chlorians
The Phantom Menace (1999) introduces midi-chlorians (or midichlorians), microscopic creatures that connect characters to the Force. Lucas later requested a passage about midi-chlorians be retroactively added to notes written in August 1977 expanding on the nature of the Force. Lucas based the concept on symbiogenesis, calling midi-chlorians a "loose depiction" of mitochondria. He further said:
[Mitochondria] probably had something ... to do with the beginnings of life and how one cell decided to become two cells with a little help from this other little creature who came in, without whom life couldn't exist. And it's really a way of saying we have hundreds of little creatures who live on us, and without them, we all would die. There wouldn't be any life. They are necessary for us; we are necessary for them. Using them in the metaphor, saying society is the same way, says we all must get along with each other.
In a rough draft of Revenge of the Sith (2005), Palpatine says he "used the power of the Force to will the midichlorians to start the cell divisions that created" Anakin Skywalker." This line was removed as the script progressed, but the concept is explored in the Darth Vader comic series (2017–18) by Charles Soule.
Sequel films and other productions
Lucas' story treatments for a potential sequel trilogy involved "a microbiotic world" and creatures known as the Whills, beings that "control the universe" and "feed off the Force." He elaborated that individuals function as "vehicles for the Whills to travel around in", and that midi-chlorians "communicate with the Whills [who] in a general sense ... are the Force." After selling Lucasfilm to Disney in 2012, Lucas said his biggest concern about the franchise's future was the Force being "muddled into a bunch of gobbledegook".
When writing The Force Awakens (2015) with Lawrence Kasdan, J. J. Abrams respected that Lucas had established midi-chlorians' effect on some characters' ability to use the Force. However, as a child, he interpreted Obi-Wan Kenobi's explanation of the Force in Star Wars to mean that any character could use its power, and that the Force was more grounded in spirituality than science. Abrams retained the idea of the Force having a light and a dark side, and some characters' seduction by the dark side helps create conflict for the story. Pablo Hidalgo of the Lucasfilm Story Group gave his "blessing" for writer-director Rian Johnson to introduce a new Force power in The Last Jedi (2017) "if the story required it and if it felt like it stretches into new territory but doesn’t break the idea of what the Force can do." Johnson observed that every Star Wars movie introduces new Force powers to meet that film's story needs.
Star Wars Rebels producer Dave Filoni cites several influences on how the Force is used in the show. The character Bendu—named in homage to the term Lucas originally associated with the Jedi—does not align with the franchise's normal dark-or-light duality, and this role is an extension of Filoni's conversations with Lucas about the nature of the Force. Filoni credits the prequel films for better developing the concept of the Force, particularly the idea of a balance between the light and dark sides.
Obi-Wan Kenobi describes the Force as "an energy field created by all living things" in Star Wars. In The Phantom Menace, Qui-Gon says microscopic lifeforms called midi-chlorians, which exist inside all living cells, allow some characters to be Force-sensitive; characters must have a high enough midi-chlorian count to feel and use the Force.
In 1981, Lucas compared using the Force to yoga, saying any character can use its power. Dave Filoni said in 2015 that all Star Wars characters are "Force intuitive": some characters, like Luke Skywalker, are aware of their connection to the Force, while characters such as Han Solo draw upon the Force unconsciously. Filoni said the most potent Force users are characters with a natural affinity for using the Force, as indicated by their midi-chlorian count, who undertake intense training and discipline. Rogue One (2016) portrays the Force more as a religion "than simply a way to manipulate objects and people". In the years following the Great Jedi Purge depicted in the prequel trilogy, some characters have lost faith in the Force, and the Galactic Empire hunts down surviving Jedi and other Force-sensitive characters. By the time of the events in The Force Awakens, some characters think the Jedi and the Force are myths.
Some Force-sensitive characters derive special, psychic abilities from it, such as telekinesis, mind control, and extrasensory perception. The Force is sometimes referred to in terms of "dark" and "light" sides, with villains like the Sith drawing on the dark side to act aggressively while the Jedi use the light side for defense and peace. According to Filoni, Lucas believed a character's intentions when using the Force—their "will to be selfless or selfish"—is what distinguishes light and dark sides. The Force is also used by characters who are neither Jedi nor Sith, such as Leia Organa and Kylo Ren. Characters throughout the franchise use their Force powers in myriad ways, including Obi-Wan using a "mind trick" to undermine a stormtrooper's will, Darth Vader choking subordinates without touching them, Rey lifting a large pile of rocks, and Kylo Ren stopping blaster fire mid-air. Film and television use of the Force is sometimes accompanied by a sound effect, such as a deep rumble associated with the dark side or a more high-pitched sound associated with benevolent use.
The Force plays an important role in several Star Wars plot lines. Anakin Skywalker's rise as a light-side Jedi, descent into becoming the dark-side Sith Lord Darth Vader, and ultimate redemption to the light side of the Force is the main story arc for the first six Star Wars films. Yoda's arc in the final season of The Clone Wars depicts him exploring "bigger questions" about the Force and taking various inspirations from the franchise's expanded universe. In The Force Awakens, Finn's exposure to the Force helps make him question his training. Writer Rian Johnson used the Force to allow Rey and Kylo Ren to communicate in The Last Jedi, developing the characters' relationship.
The bodies of some Jedi vanish when they die, becoming "one with the Force". This allows some deceased characters to interact with the living as "being[s] of light". Obi-Wan's spirit provides Luke with guidance at key moments in the original trilogy, and Yoda appears as a spirit to Luke in The Last Jedi. The "voices of Jedi Past" assist Rey at the climax of The Rise of Skywalker and the spirits of Luke and Leia watch over Rey at the end of The Rise of Skywalker. In an early draft of Return of the Jedi, Lucas planned to resurrect Obi-Wan and Yoda at the climax, and some drafts included scenes of the two helping Luke stop the Emperor.
The origin of Force spirits is explored further in the prequel trilogy and The Clone Wars series. The deceased Qui-Gon Jinn's voice is audible in Attack of the Clones, and Yoda reveals in Revenge of the Sith that he has been in contact with Qui-Gon. The final arc of the sixth season of The Clone Wars reveals that Qui-Gon learned how to transition into the "cosmic Force" from entities who represent various emotions. A short story by Claudia Gray depicts Obi-Wan learning this technique from the deceased Qui-Gon in the years leading up to A New Hope.
Chris Taylor called the Force "largely a mystery" in Star Wars. Taylor ascribes the "more poetic, more spiritual ... and more demonstrative" descriptions of the Force in The Empire Strikes Back to Lawrence Kasdan, who co-wrote the film, but says the film does little to expand audiences' understanding of it. In 1997, Lucas said that the more detail he articulated about the Force and how it works, the more it took away from its core meaning. Kotaku suggests Johnson depicted more nuance in the Force in The Last Jedi than Lucas did in his films. According to Rob Weinert-Kendt, the "Force theme" in John Williams' score represents the power and responsibility of wielding the Force.
Comparison to magic
Paranormal abilities like the Force are a common device in science fiction, and the Force has been compared to the role magic plays in the fantasy genre. The Star Wars films illustrate that characters not familiar with the particulars of the Force associate it with mysticism and magic, such as when an Imperial officer alludes to the "sorcerer's ways" of Darth Vader. The depiction of the Force in Star Wars has been compared to that of magic in Harry Potter, with the former being described as more of a "spiritual force". According to The A.V. Club, The Last Jedi depicts the Force "closer to the sorcery of fairy tales and medieval romance than it's ever been."
Eric Charles points out that the television films The Ewok Adventure (1984) and Ewoks: The Battle for Endor (1985), intended for children, are "fairy tales in a science fiction setting" which feature magic and other fairy tale motifs rather than the Force and science-fiction tropes. These Ewok films have been described as depicting "sorcery" that is unique from the Force powers depicted in the first six Star Wars films. Drawing from the Star Wars roleplaying game sourcebook he co-authored in 1987, Bill Slavicsek says that "The Ewoks' mystical beliefs contain many references to the Force, though it is never named as such."
Religion and spirituality
In his 1977 review of Star Wars, Vincent Canby of The New York Times called the Force "a mixture of what appears to be ESP and early Christian faith." The Magic of Myth compares the sharp distinction between the good "light side" and evil "dark side" of the Force to Zoroastrianism, which posits that "good and evil, like light and darkness, are contrary realities". The connectedness between the light and dark sides has been compared to the relationship between yin and yang in Taoism, although the balance between yin and yang lacks the element of evil associated with the dark side. Taylor identifies other similarities between the Force and a Navajo prayer, prana, and qi. It is a common plot device in jidaigeki films like The Hidden Fortress (1958), which inspired Star Wars, for samurai who master qi to achieve astonishing feats of swordsmanship. Taylor added that the lack of detail about the Force makes it "a religion for the secular age". According to Jennifer Porter, professor of religious studies at the Memorial University of Newfoundland, "the Force is a metaphor for godhood that resonates and inspires within [people] a deeper commitment to the godhood identified within their traditional faith".
According to Christian Pastor Clayton Keenan, "the spirituality of 'Star Wars' has to do with the Force. It's depicted as ... something supernatural within this universe, but it's not the same thing as a personal god that Christians or Jews or Muslims might believe in. It's this impersonal force that is in some ways this neutral, impersonal energy that is out there to be used for good or for evil."
At one point, Francis Ford Coppola suggested to George Lucas that they use their combined fortunes to start a religion based on the Force. Practitioners of Jediism pray to and express gratitude to the Force.
Scientists are mostly skeptical about a "real world" explanation for the Force. Astrophysicist Jeanne Cavelos says in The Science of Star Wars that explaining the Force is particularly difficult because "it does so many different things". Force powers like precognition imply the time travel of information. Cavelos explores the possibility of brain implants or sensors being used to detect users' intent and manipulate energy fields, and compares such discipline to contemporary patients learning to control prosthetics.
A scientific explanation of the Force would require new discoveries in physics, such as unknown fields or particles or a fifth force beyond the four fundamental interactions. Flavio Fenton of the Georgia Institute of Technology School of Physics suggests a fifth force would carry two types of charge—one for the light side and one for the dark—and that each would be carried by its own particle. Nepomuk Otte, also from Georgia Tech, cautions that Newton's third law of motion says telekinesis would apply a force back on the Force-wielding character.
National Geographic compared the Higgs boson's role as "carrier" of the Higgs field to the way Jedi are "carriers" of the Force. A previsualization video highlighting the idea of "kicking someone's ass with the Force" steered LucasArts game designers toward producing The Force Unleashed (2008), which sold six million copies as of July 2009. In 2009, Uncle Milton Industries released a toy, called the Force Trainer, which uses EEG to read users' beta waves to lift a training droid-themed ball with a shaft of air.
The New Republic, Townhall, The Atlantic, and others have compared various political machinations to the "Jedi mind trick", a Force power used to undermine opponents' perceptions and willpower.
And then there is that distressing thing called the Force, which is ... Lucas's tribute to something beyond science: imagination, the soul, God in man ... It appears in various contradictory and finally nonsensical guises, a facile and perfunctory bow to metaphysics. I wish that Lucas had had the courage of his materialistic convictions, instead dragging in a sop to a spiritual force the main thrust of the movie so cheerfully ignores.
Critic Tim Robley compared the Force to the ruby slippers from The Wizard of Oz (1939), with both being entities that send the protagonist on a quest. In her 1980 Washington Post review of The Empire Strikes Back, Judith Martin described the Force as "a mishmash of current cultic fashions without any base in ideas. It doesn't seem to be connected with ethics or a code of decent behavior, either."
The introduction of midi-chlorians in The Phantom Menace was controversial, with Evan Narcisse of Time writing that the concept ruined Star Wars for him and a generation of fans because "the mechanisms of the Force became less spiritual and more scientific". Film historian Daniel Dinello argued, "Anathema to Star Wars fanatics who thought they reduced the Force to a kind of viral infection, midi-chlorians provide a biological interface, the link between physical bodies and spiritual energy." Referring to "midi-chlorians" became a screenwriting shorthand for over-explaining a concept. Although Chris Taylor suggested fans want less detail, not more, in explaining the Force, the introduction of midi-chlorians provided depth to the franchise and fomented engagement among fans and franchise writers. Religion expert John D. Caputo writes, "In the 'Gospel according to Lucas' a world is conjured up in which the intractable oppositions that have tormented religious thinkers for centuries are reconciled ... The gifts that the Jedi masters enjoy have a perfectly plausible scientific basis, even if its ways are mysterious".
Characters' faith in the Force reinforces the Rogue One's message of hope. The A.V. Club said Rian Johnson's depiction of the Force in The Last Jedi goes "beyond George Lucas’ original transcendental concept". Polygon said Johnson's film "democratize[s] the Force", depicting Force sensitivity in characters from outside a "Force-sensitive lineage" and suggesting that the Force can be used by anyone.
"May the Force be with you"
Several Star Wars characters say "May the Force be with you" (or derivatives of it) and the expression has become a popular catchphrase. In 2005, "May the Force be with you" was chosen as number 8 on the American Film Institute's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes list. May 4 is Star Wars Day, taken from the pun "May the Fourth be with you". The expression was intentionally similar to the Christian dominus vobiscum, "the Lord be with you".
President Ronald Reagan in 1985 said "the Force is with us", referring to the United States, to create the Strategic Defense Initiative to protect against Soviet ballistic missiles. Some weeks earlier, Reagan had compared the Soviets to the Galactic Empire. The Gospel According to Star Wars says that Reagan's invocation of the Force was actually perverting Star Wars's "self-dispossessing" (or other-focused) ethos:
[The] blessing "May the Force be with you" is the expression of a hope for others ("May the Force be with you"), not for ourselves as with Reagan ("The Force is with us"). Moreover, the [Star Wars] blessing is precisely a request for hope for others ("May the Force be with you"), whereas Reagan's claim sounds like a possessive assertion ("The Force is with us").
- Windham, Ryder (1999). Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Movie Scrapbook. Random House. p. 11. ISBN 9780375800085.
- The Mythology of Star Wars (2000 documentary)
- Taylor, p. 58
- Kaminski, pp. 75–77
- Silberman, Steve (May 1, 2005). "Life After Darth". Wired. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Taylor, p. 112
- Bouzereau, p. 36
- Taylor, p. 116
- Taylor, pp. 116–117
- Taylor, p. 122
- Bouzereau, p. 37
- Taylor, p. 126
- Taylor, p. 142
- Taylor, p. 144
- Bouzereau, p. 181
- Bouzereau, p. 173
- Bouzereau, p. 182
- Rinzler, J.W. (June 24, 2013). "SO WHAT THE HECK ARE MIDI-CHLORIANS?". Star Wars. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
- Taylor, p. 59
- Rolling Stone, June 2005
- Narcisse, Evan (August 10, 2010). "20,000 Per Cell: Why Midi-chlorians Suck". Time. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Young, Bryan (December 28, 2018). "Does a New 'Star Wars' Comic Book Reveal Darth Vader's Father?". /Film. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
- Marotta, Jenna (June 13, 2018). "'Star Wars': George Lucas Would Have Set Third Trilogy in 'Microbiotic World' Linked to Midi-Chlorians". IndieWire. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- Child, Ben (November 19, 2015). "George Lucas says he would not direct another Star Wars film after criticism". The Guardian. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Sciretta, Peter (December 7, 2015). "JJ Abrams on Midi-chlorians And The Inclusiveness Of The Force". /Film. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Woerner, Meredith (August 17, 2015). "J.J. Abrams explains why anyone would still want to join the new Empire in 'Star Wars'". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Yamato, Jen (December 18, 2017). "Rian Johnson on the evolution of the Force in 'Star Wars: The Last Jedi' and more spoilers". Los Angeles Times. Ross Levinsohn. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- Faraci, Devin (July 20, 2016). "In Star Wars Rebels The Force Isn't Just For The Jedi". Birth.Movies.Death. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
- Sciretta, Peter (September 23, 2016). "Dave Filoni Star Wars Rebels Season 3 Interview". /Film. Retrieved September 25, 2016.
- Siegel, Lucas (February 17, 2017). "Dave Filoni Explains Why the Star Wars Prequels Are So Important to Today's Stories". Comicbook. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
- Rector, Brett (March 16, 2007). "Production Diary: The Concept of The Force Unleashed". Lucasfilm. Archived from the original on September 15, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2008.
- Brooks, Terry (1999). Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace. New York: Ballantine Books.
- Ryan, Mike (May 22, 2013). "Star Wars Prequels Were Mapped Out By George Lucas & Lawrence Kasdan In 1981: Exclusive Excerpt From The Making Of Star Wars: Return of the Jedi". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on April 8, 2014. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Star Wars Rebels Discussion at FTW Comics: Dave Filoni, Henry Gilroy, and Kilian Plunkett Part 2. June 2, 2015. Event occurs at 10m, 40s. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- Siegel, Lucas (July 19, 2016). "Star Wars Rebels Showrunner Dave Filoni Defends and Explains Midi-chlorians". ComicBook.com. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
- Siegel, Lucas (December 18, 2016). "How The Force Changed in Rogue One: A Star Wars Story". comicbook.com. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
- McCluskey, Megan (December 16, 2016). "Everything You Need to Know About the Force in Rogue One". Time. Time Inc. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
- Anerton, Ethan (October 21, 2015). "How Did the Jedi Become Just A Myth in 'Star Wars: The Force Awakens'?". /Film. Peter Sciretta. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
- Henderson, Mary (1997). Star Wars: The Magic of Myth. Bantam Books. p. 116. ISBN 9780553378108.
- McMillan, Graeme (December 8, 2015). "'Star Wars': J.J. Abrams Explains Why Leia Is a General, Not a Jedi (for Now)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Anderton, Ethan (August 25, 2015). "JJ Abrams Says Kylo Ren is Not a Sith in The Force Awakens". /Film. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- "Databank: Jedi Mind Trick". StarWars.com. Lucasfilm. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
- Shapiro, Ben (December 5, 2012). "Jedi Mind Trick Nation". Townhall. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
- Nashawaty, Chris (December 19, 2016). "Rogue One: A Star Wars Story: EW review". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 24, 2016.
- Robey, Tim; O'Hara, Helen; McAloon, Jonathan; Hawkes, Rebecca (December 17, 2015). "14 things Star Wars fans will love about The Force Awakens". The Telegraph. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- Leon, Melissa (December 27, 2015). "Emo Kylo Ren: Star Wars: The Force Awakens' Polarizing Villain". The Daily Beast. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
- "Spark of Rebellion Trivia Gallery". StarWars.com. Lucasfilm. Click on image 5 of 18 with thumbnail of Ezra Bridger. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Seabrook, John (January 6, 1997). "Why Is the Force Still With Us?". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
The scripts for the prequel, which Lucas is finishing now, make it clear that Star Wars, taken as a whole story and viewed in chronological order, is not really the story of Luke at all but the story of Luke’s father, Anakin Skywalker, and how he, a Jedi Knight, was corrupted by the dark side of the Force and became Darth Vader. When I asked Lucas what Star Wars was ultimately about, he said, 'Redemption.'
- "Dave Filoni on The Lost Missions' Yoda Arc". StarWars.com. Lucasfilm. March 12, 2014. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- Perry, Spencer (November 12, 2015). "J.J. Abrams Talks Luke Skywalker's Mythic Status in Star Wars". ComingSoon.net. CraveOnline. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Robinson, Joanna (December 14, 2017). "Star Wars: The Last Jedi—What Happened to Luke?". Vanity Fair. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
- Slavicsek, Bill (1994). A Guide to the Star Wars Universe (2nd ed.). Del Rey Books. p. 47. ISBN 0-345-38625-6.
- Ratcliffe, Amy (January 12, 2018). "Star Wars: The Ins and Outs of Becoming a Force Ghost". Nerdist. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
- Breznican, Anthony (July 8, 2015). "Star Wars: The Force Awakens theory: What role may Obi-Wan Kenobi play?". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- Evans, Nick (January 2018). "Why Star Wars: The Last Jedi Used A Puppet For Yoda". Cinema Blend. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
- Breznican, Anthony; Robinson, Joanna (December 20, 2019). "25 Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker Cameos You Might Have Missed". Vanity Fair. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
- Britt, Ryan (May 22, 2019). "'Star Wars: Rise of Skywalker' Photo Suggests Luke Could Come Back to Life". Inverse. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
- Anders, Charlie Jane (September 25, 2013). "10 Things You Probably Didn't Know About Star Wars: Return of the Jedi". io9. G/O Media. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
- "Qui-Gon Jinn Visits His Former Padawan in From a Certain Point of View - Exclusive Excerpt". StarWars.com. October 3, 2017. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
- Bouzereau, p. 35
- Hamilton, Kirk (December 15, 2017). "Star Wars: The Last Jedi Has A Really Cool Take On The Force". Kotaku. G/O Media. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- Weinert-Kendt, Rob (2015). "Music of the Galaxy". The Ultimate Guide to Star Wars. Time Inc. Books. ISBN 9781618934802.
- Stratmann, H. G. (2016). Using Medicine in Science Fiction: The SF Writer's Guide to Human Biology. Springer International Publishing. p. 249. ISBN 978-3-319-16015-3. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- Sherman, Aubrey (2014). Wizards: The Myths, Legends, & Lore. Adams Media. p. 157. ISBN 9781440582882. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- Flotmann, Christina (2014). Ambiguity in Star Wars And Harry Potter: A (Post) Structuralist Reading of Two Popular Myths. Transcript Verlag. p. 368. ISBN 978-3-837-62148-8.
- Vishnevetsky, Ignatiy (December 15, 2017). "Part Kurosawa, part Wile E. Coyote, The Last Jedi boldly rewires Star Wars' origins". The A.V. Club. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- Charles, Eric (2012). "The Jedi Network: Star Wars' Portrayal and Inspirations on the Small Screen". In Brode, Douglas; Deyneka, Leah (eds.). Myth, Media, and Culture in Star Wars: An Anthology. Scarecrow Press. pp. 129–131. ISBN 978-0-810-88513-4. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- Clark, Mark (2015). "26". Star Wars FAQ: Everything Left to Know About the Trilogy That Changed the Movies. Applause Theatre & Cinema Books. ISBN 9781480360181.
- Slavicsek, Bill (1994). A Guide to the Star Wars Universe (2nd ed.). Del Rey Books. p. 158. ISBN 0-345-38625-6.
- Canby, Vincent (May 26, 1977). "Star Wars—A Trip to a Far Galaxy That's Fun and Funny..." The New York Times. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Kraemer, Ross; Cassidy, William; Schwartz, Susan L. (2009). Religions Of Star Trek. Basic Books. ISBN 0786750227.
- Jamilla, Nick (2012). "Chapter 12: Defining the Jedi Order". In Brode, Douglas; Deyneka, Leah (eds.). Sex, Politics, and Religion in Star Wars: An Anthology. Scarecrow Press. pp. 156–157. ISBN 081088514X.
- Kaminski, p. 76
- Taylor, pp. 59–60
- Alleman, Annie (December 17, 2015). "'Star Wars' has been part of the culture for nearly 40 years". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
- Pollock, Dale (June 1983). "A Man and His Empire: The Private Life of 'Star Wars' Creator George Lucas". Life: 94.
- Kapell, Matthew; Lawrence, John Shelton (2006). Finding the Force of the Star Wars Franchise: Fans, Merchandise, & Critics. Peter Lang. p. 107. ISBN 9780820463339.
- Cavelos, pp. 178–179
- Hadhazy, Adam (August 11, 2008). "The Science of Star Wars: The Clone Wars -- Q&A with Author Jeanne Cavelos". Scientific American. Springer Nature. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- Cavelos, pp. 188–189
- Cavelos, pp. 183–184
- Cavelos, pp. 191–192
- Cavelos, p. 191
- Maderer, Jason. "The Science of Star Wars". Georgia Institute of Technology. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Achenbach, Joel (March 2008). "The God Particle". National Geographic Magazine. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- "Unleashing The Force Part 1: The New Beginning". Star Wars: Force Unleashed. GameTrailers. May 25, 2007. Archived from the original on March 9, 2008. Retrieved August 15, 2008.
- Rector, Brett (February 22, 2007). "Production Diary: How It All Began". StarWars.com. Lucasfilm. Archived from the original on September 15, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2008.
- Thorsen, Tor (July 24, 2009). "Force Unleashed unleashing more DLC, Sith Edition". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on July 28, 2009. Retrieved July 25, 2009.
- Kaplan, Don (June 30, 2009). "Jedi Mind Trick Do You Can". New York Post. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Snider, Mike (January 7, 2009). "Toy trains 'Star Wars' fans to use The Force". USA Today. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
- Spaeth, Ryu. "Donald Trump's Jedi mind trick is his pledge to the Republican Party". The New Republic. Hamilton Fish V.
- Sanchez, Julian (December 23, 2013). "The War on Terror's Jedi Mind Trick". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- Kay, Katty (January 23, 2016). "Obama's 'Jedi mind trick' and a revealing admission". Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- Simon, John (June 20, 1977). "Star Dust". New York: 71. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Lincoln, Kevin (December 17, 2015). "Looking Back at New York's Critical 1977 Review of Star Wars". Vulture.com. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Robey, Tim (November 24, 2015). "10 films that influenced Star Wars". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved December 2, 2015.
- Martin, Judith (May 23, 1980). "The Empire Strikes Back". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
- Dinello, Daniel (2005). Technophobia!: Science Fiction Visions of Posthuman Technology. Austin: University of Texas Press. p. 211. ISBN 0-292-70986-2.
- Bell, Chris (December 16, 2015). "Why it's time to stop hating George Lucas". The Telegraph. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- Musgrove, Mike (October 10, 2014). "Review: How Star Wars Conquered the Universe by Chris Taylor". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
- Caputo, John D. (2001). On Religion. London: Routledge. p. 87. ISBN 0-415-23332-1.
- Sarkar, Samit (December 30, 2017). "Star Wars: The Last Jedi opens up the Force, which makes business sense for Disney - Polygon". Polygon. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- Gomez, Rolando. Socially Smart: Twitter Plus Facebook, Marketing Multipliers And Brand Boosters. BookBaby. ISBN 9781626754751. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
- American Film Institute (2005). "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes". Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- 'Star Wars' Day: May The 4th Be With You, My Fox Chattanooga, May 4, 2010, archived from the original on May 8, 2010
- Taylor, p. 60
- de Lama, George (March 30, 1985). "'The Force Is With Us,' Reagan Says". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- Williams, Brenna (May 4, 2018). "#FBF: Ronald Reagan and Star Wars". CNN. Turner Broadcasting System. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
- McDowell, John C. (2007). The Gospel According to Star Wars: Faith, Hope, and the Force. Westminster John Knox. p. 26. ISBN 9781611644258.
- Bouzereau, Laurent (1997). Star Wars: The Annotated Screenplays. Ballantine Books. ISBN 0345409817.
- Cavelos, Jeanne (May 1999). "5. The Force". The Science of Star Wars. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0312209584.
- Kaminski, Michael (November 18, 2008). The Secret History of Star Wars. Legacy Books Press. pp. 75–77. ISBN 978-0978465230.
- Taylor, Chris (2014). How Star Wars Conquered the Universe: The Past, Present, and Future of a Multibillion Dollar Franchise. Basic Books. OCLC 889674238.
- Allain, Rhett (May 4, 2017). "In which we literally calculate the power of the Force". Wired.
- Asher-Perrin, Emmet (September 12, 2012). "The "True Nature of the Force" is Way More Complicated Than You Think". Tor Books.
- Bortolin, Matthew (2005). The Dharma of Star Wars. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0861714970.
- Decker, Kevin S.; Eberl, Jason T.; Irwin, William (2009). Star Wars and Philosophy: More Powerful than You Can Possibly Imagine. Open Court Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1435119468.
- Panchin, Alexander Y.; Tuzhikov, Alexander I.; Panchin, Yuri V. (2014). "Midichlorians - the biomeme hypothesis: is there a microbial component to religious rituals?" (PDF). Biology Direct. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-9-14.
- Porter, John M. (2003). The Tao of Star Wars. Humanics Trade Group. ISBN 0893343854.
- Whitbrook, James (September 18, 2019). So, What Can a Force Ghost Do?. io9. G/O Media.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: The Force|
- Text of Ronald Reagan's March 29, 1985, speech to the National Space Club in which he refers to the Force and Star Wars
- Force Choke in the StarWars.com Databank
- Force Lightning in the StarWars.com Databank
- Force Push in the StarWars.com Databank
- Jedi Mind Trick in the StarWars.com Databank