Assyrian Church of the East
Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East
|ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ|
|Archdiocese of India||Chaldean Syrian Church of India|
|Region||Central Middle East, India; diaspora|
|Liturgy||East Syrian Rite|
formerly Ankawa, Erbil, Iraq
|Origin||Apostolic Era. After the Nestorian Schism the Church of the East declined during the period of splits and mergers following the 12th–14th centuries; then joined the Catholic Church in 1552; then after that, left and reestablished the Church of the East in 1692 independently.|
|Absorbed||Chaldean Syrian Church (1870s)|
|Separations||Chaldean Catholic Church (1830) (Elia Line) |
Ancient Church of the East (1968)
|Official website||Official website|
|Part of a series on|
|Part of a series on|
The Assyrian Church of the East (Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ, romanized: ʿĒḏtā ḏ-Maḏnḥā ḏ-ʾĀṯūrāyē, Arabic: كنيسة المشرق الآشورية), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ, romanized: ʿĒḏtā Qaddīštā wa-Šlīḥāytā Qāṯōlīqī ḏ-Maḏnḥā ḏ-ʾĀṯūrāyē, Arabic: كنيسة المشرق الآشورية الرسولية الجاثلقية المقدسة), is an Eastern Christian church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East. It belongs to the eastern branch of Syriac Christianity, and employs the Divine Liturgy of Saints Addai and Mari belonging to the East Syrian Rite. Its main spoken language is Syriac, a dialect of Eastern Aramaic, and the majority of its adherents are ethnic Assyrians.
The Assyrian Church of the East also has an archdiocese based in India, known as the Chaldean Syrian Church of India. The Assyrian Church was originally based in the city of Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan in northern Iraq. But due to the Iran–Iraq War, the Assyrian Church shifted their headquarters to Chicago, United States during the tenure of Mar Dinkha IV in the 1980s. The Assyrian Church's original area also spread into southeastern Turkey, northeastern Syria and northwestern Iran, corresponding roughly to ancient Assyria. Since 2015, the primate of the Assyrian Church of the East is Catholicos-Patriarch Mar Gewargis III.
The Assyrian Church of the East claims continuity with the historical Church of the East, but it is not in communion with either the Oriental Orthodox churches or the Eastern Orthodox Church. It has a traditional episcopal structure, headed by the Catholicos-Patriarch. Its hierarchy is composed of metropolitan bishops and diocesan bishops, while lower clergy consists of priests and deacons, who serve in dioceses (eparchies) and parishes throughout the Middle East, India, North America, Oceania, and Europe (including the Caucasus and Russia).
The Assyrian Church of the East considers itself as the continuation of the Church of the East, a church that originally developed among the Assyrians during the first century AD in Assyria, Upper Mesopotamia and northwestern Persia, east of the Byzantine Empire. It is an Apostolic church established by Thomas the Apostle, Thaddeus of Edessa, and Bartholomew the Apostle. Saint Peter, chief of the Apostles, added his blessing to the Church of the East at the time of his visit to the See at Babylon in the earliest days of the Church when stating, "The elect church which is in Babylon, salutes you; and Mark, my son." (1 Peter 5:13).
The historical distinctiveness of the Assyrian Church of the East resulted from the series of complex processes and events that occurred within the Church of the East during the transitional period that started in the middle of the 16th century, and lasted until the beginning of the 19th century. That turbulent period was marked by several consequent splits and mergers, resulting in the creation of separate branches and rival patriarchal lines. During the entire period, one of the main questions of dispute was the union with the Catholic Church. Ultimately, the pro-Catholic branches were consolidated as the Chaldean Catholic Church, while the traditional branches were consolidated as the Assyrian Church of the East.
Schisms and branches
During the patriarchal tenure of Shemon VII Ishoyahb (1539–1558), who resided in the ancient Rabban Hormizd Monastery near Alqosh, an internal dissent occurred over several issues, including the question of hereditary succession to the patriarchal throne, and the question of union with the Catholic Church. By that time, Franciscan missionaries had already gained some influence over several local communities, and they took an active role in organizing the opposition to the Patriarch at that time. By the end of 1552, a pro-Catholic party had been organized in Mosul under the leadership of the priest Yohannan Sulaqa, who decided to legitimize his position by traveling to Rome and seeking confirmation by Pope Julius III (1550–1555). Receiving support from the Franciscan missionaries, he arrived in Rome and entered into full communion with the Catholic Church in February 1553. At that point, officials of the Roman Curia were given incorrect information that the elderly Patriarch Shemon VII had actually died. After some deliberation, the Pope decided to appoint Yohannan Sulaqa as "Patriarch of Babylon" in April 1553.
Upon consecration, Yohannan Sulaqa took the name Shimun and by the end of the year he returned to his homeland. He started to organize the pro-Catholic party by appointing several metropolitans and bishops, thus establishing the first group of hierarchs in the newly created Eastern Catholic Patriarchate of Mosul. That was the seminal event in the early history of the Chaldean Catholic Church. Creation of the separate Eastern-Catholic hierarchy was not welcomed by the traditionalist Patriarch Shemon VII Ishoyahb; thus an ecclesiastical rivalry between two parties was born, lasting for centuries. Initial splits and conflicts affected both communities and marked the beginning of a long series of splits and mergers within both branches.
The senior Eliya line of Alqosh
Union with Rome was actively opposed by Patriarch Shemon VII Ishoyahb, who continued to reside in the Rabban Hormizd Monastery near Alqosh. He was succeeded by his nephew Eliya (1558–1591), who was designated as Eliya "VII" in older historiography, but renumbered as Eliya "VI" in recent scholarly works. The same renumbering was applied to his successors, who all took the same name thus creating the Eliya line. During his patriarchal rule, the Eliya line preserved its traditional christology and full ecclesiastical independence. His successor was Patriarch Eliya (VII) VIII (1591–1617), who negotiated on several occasions with the Catholic Church, in 1605 and 1610, and again in 1615–1616, but without any conclusion. Further negotiations were abandoned by the next Patriarch Eliya (VIII) IX (1617–1660). David Wilmshurst noted that his successor, Patriarch Eliya (IX) X (1660–1700) also was a "vigorous defender of the traditional faith".
The Eliya line of traditionalist Patriarchs continued throughout the entire 18th century, residing in the ancient Monastery of Rabban Hormizd, which was eventually attacked and looted in 1743, at the beginning of the Ottoman–Persian War (1743–1746). Faced with a centuries-old rivalry and frequent conflicts between two mighty Islamic empires (Ottoman and Persian), all Christian communities in the bordering regions were constantly exposed to danger – and not only in the times of war, since local, mainly Kurdish, warlords were accustomed to attacking Christian communities and monasteries. Patriarchs Eliya (X) XI (1700–1722) and Eliya (XI) XII (1722–1778) tried to improve the increasingly worsening position of their Christian flock by staying loyal to Ottoman authorities, but local the administration was frequently unable to provide effective protection. The Eliya line of traditionalist Patriarchs ended in 1804 with the death of Eliya (XII) XIII (1778–1804).
The junior Shimun line of Qochanis
During the second half of the 16th century, traditionalist patriarchs of the Eliya line were faced with the continuous presence of the pro-Catholic movement, led by successors of Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa. After his death in 1555, the newly established line of patriarchs who were united with the Catholic Church was continued by Abdisho IV Maron (1555–1570), who remained in full communion with the Catholic Church. He visited Rome and was officially confirmed by the Pope of Rome in 1562. Soon after his death, connections with Rome were weakened for the first time during the tenure of Patriarch Yahballaha V who did not seek confirmation from the Pope. That interlude was ended by his successor Shimun IX Dinkha (1580–1600) who restored full communion with the Catholic Church, and was officially confirmed by the Pope in 1584.
After his death, the patriarchal office was made hereditary, and Patriarchs of this line continued to use the name Shimun, thus creating the Shimun line. Hereditary succession was not acceptable to Rome, and during the tenure of the next Patriarch Shimun X Eliyah (1600–1638) ties with Catholic Church were loosened again. In 1616, Shimun X signed a traditional profession of faith that was not accepted by the Pope, leaving the Patriarch without Rome's confirmation. His successor Shimun XI Eshuyow (1638–1656) restored communion with the Catholic Church as late as 1653, eventually receiving confirmation from the Pope. By that time, movement towards full commitment to the traditional faith was constantly growing stronger within the Shimun line. When the next Patriarch Shimun XII Yoalaha decided to send his profession of faith to the Pope, he was deposed by his bishops because of his pro-Catholic attitude. The Pope tried to intervene on his behalf, but without success.
Final resolution of conflicts within the Shimun line occurred under the next Patriarch Shimun XIII Dinkha (1662–1700), who definitively broke communion with the Catholic Church. In 1670, he gave a traditionalist reply to an approach that was made from the Pope, and by 1672 all connections with the Catholic Church were terminated. At the same time, Patriarch Shimun XIII moved his seat from Amid to Qochanis. After the final return to the traditional faith, Patriarchs of the Shimun line decided to keep their independence and after that time there were two independent lines of traditional patriarchs: the senior Eliya line in Alqosh and the junior Shimun line in Qochanis.
Such division was additionally caused by the complex structure of local Assyrian communities, traditionally organized as tribal confederations with each tribe being headed by a local lord (malik), while each malik was ultimately subject to the patriarch, who mediated between Assyrian Christians and the Ottoman authorities. In spite of the prolonged rivalry between two patriarchal lines, they often faced similar problems and during the 18th century occasional cooperation was achieved, paving the way for the restoration of unity.
Consolidation of remaining branches
In 1780, at the beginning of the patriarchal tenure of Eliya (XII) XIII (1778–1804), a group seceded from the Eliya line in Alqosh and elected Yohannan Hormizd, who entered full communion with the Catholic Church and was officially appointed Archbishop of Mosul and patriarchal administrator of the Chaldean Catholic Church, in 1783. Only after the death in 1827 of the last representative of the Josephite line, Joseph V Augustine Hindi, was Yohannan recognized as the Chaldean Catholic Patriarch by the Pope, in 1830. By this official appointment, the final merger of various factions committed to the union with the Catholic Church was achieved, thus forming the modern Chaldean Catholic Church.
At the same time, the long coexistence and rivalry between two traditionalist patriarchal branches — the senior Eliya line of Alqosh and the junior Shimun line of Qochanis — ended in 1804 when the last primate of the Eliya line, Patriarch Eliya (XII) XIII died and was buried in the ancient Rabban Hormizd Monastery. His branch decided not to elect a new patriarch, thus enabling the remaining patriarch Shimun XVI Yohannan (1780–1820) of the Shimun line to become the sole primate of both Assyrian traditionalist branches. Consolidated after 1804, the reunited traditionalist church led by patriarchs of the Shimun line became widely known as the "Assyrian Church of the East". Still based in Qodchanis, Assyrian Patriarch Shimun XVI Yohannan was not able to secure control over the traditional seat of the former Eliya line in the ancient Rabban Hormizd Monastery; and around 1808 that venerated monastic institution passed to the Chaldean Catholics.
The next Assyrian patriarch Shimun XVII Abraham (1820–1861) also led his Church from Qodshanis. During years marked by political turbulence, he tried to maintain good relations with the local Ottoman authorities. In 1843, he was faced with renewed hostilities from Kurdish warlords, who attacked and looted many Christian villages, killing 10,000 Christian men and taking away women and children as captives. The patriarch himself was forced to take temporary refuge in Mosul. He was succeeded by Patriarch Shimun XVIII Rubil (1861–1903) who also resided in Qodshanis. In 1869, he received an open invitation from the Vatican to visit Rome to attend the First Vatican Council as an observer, but he did not accept the invitation, In following years, he also rejected other initiatives for union with the Catholic Church.
By the end of 19th century, the Assyrian Church of the East consolidated itself as the sole representative of all traditionalist Assyrians. It also managed to secure a certain level of autonomy within the highly complex system of Ottoman local governance in the bordering regions. On several occasions, Assyrian patriarchs refused to enter communion with the Catholic Church or merge with the Chaldean Catholic Church. On the other hand, by the end of 19th century some of its communities were converted to Protestantism by various western missionaries, while other communities were drawn to Eastern Orthodoxy. That movement was led by Assyrian bishop Mar Yonan of Supurghan in the region of Urmia, who converted to Eastern Orthodoxy in 1898, through the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Urmia. Activities of foreign missions among Assyrians represented not only a religious, but also a political challenge, since the Ottoman authorities were very suspicious of any foreign presence among their Christian subjects.
Among all the tragedies and schisms which thinned the Church out, no other was as severe as the Assyrian genocide. At that point the Assyrian Church of the East was based in the mountains of Hakkari, as it had been since 1681. In 1915, The Young Turks invaded the region — despite the Assyrians' plea of neutrality during the Caucasus Campaign by Russia and their Armenian allies — out of fear of an Assyrian independence movement. In response to this, Assyrians of all denominations (the Assyrian Church of the East, the Chaldean Catholic Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church and Assyrian Protestants) entered into a war of independence and allied themselves with the United Kingdom, the Russian Empire and the Armenians against the Ottomans and their Islamic Kurdish, Iranian and Arab allies. Despite the odds, the Assyrians fought successfully against the Ottomans and their allies for three years throughout southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, northwestern Iran and northeastern Syria. Eventually, however, they were abandoned by their allies, the Russian Empire and the First Republic of Armenia, due to the Russian Revolution and the collapse of the Armenian defense, leaving the Assyrians vastly outnumbered, surrounded, and cut off from supplies of ammunition and food. During this period, their see at Qodchanis was completely destroyed and the Turks and their Islamic allies massacred all of the Assyrians in the Hakkari Mountains. Those who survived fled into Iran with what remained of the Assyrian defense under Agha Petros, but they were pursued into Iranian territory despite the fact they were fleeing. Later, in 1918, after the murder of their de facto leader and patriarch Shimun XIX Benyamin and 150 of his followers during a negotiation, fearing further massacres at the hands of the Turks and Kurds, most of the survivors fled by train from Iran into what was to become Iraq. They sought protection under the British mandate there, and joined the already existing indigenous Assyrian communities of both Eastern Orthodox and Catholic rites in the north, where they formed communities in Baghdad, Basra, and other areas. 
Assyrians were some of the British Administration's most loyal subjects, so they employed Assyrian troops ("Iraq Levies") to put down Arab and Kurdish rebellions in the aftermath of World War I and to protect the Turkish and Iranian borders of British Iraq from invasion. In consequence, Assyrians of all Christian denominations endured persecution under the Hashemites, culminating in the Simele massacre in 1933, leading thousands to flee to the West, in particular to the United States. Patriarch Shimun XXI Eshai himself went into exile in 1940–1941 and relocated the Patriarchate to Chicago which became the centre of the Assyrian–Chaldean–Syriac diaspora. However, the Assyrians who remained continued to work alongside the British, even playing a major role in bringing down the pro-Nazi Iraqi forces during World War II, and they remained attached to British forces until 1955.
Patriarch Shimun XXI Eshai
During this period, the British-educated patriarch Shimun XXI Eshai, born into the line of patriarchs at Qodchanis, agitated for an independent Assyrian state. Following the end of the British mandate in 1933 and a massacre of Assyrian civilians at Simele by the Iraqi Army, the patriarch was forced to take refuge in Cyprus. There, Shimun petitioned the League of Nations regarding his people's fate, but to little avail, and he was consequently barred from entering Syria and Iraq. He traveled through Europe before moving to Chicago in 1940 to join the growing Assyrian–Chaldean–Syriac community there.
Due to the church's and the general Assyrian community's disorganized state as a result of the conflicts of the 20th century, Patriarch Shimun XXI Eshai was forced to reorganize the church's structure in the United States. He transferred his residence to San Francisco in 1954, and was able to travel to Iran, Lebanon, Kuwait, and India, where he worked to strengthen the church.
In 1964, the patriarch decreed a number of changes to the church, including liturgical reform, the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, and the shortening of Lent. These changes, combined with Shimun's long absence from Iraq, caused a rift in the community there, which led to another schism. In 1968, traditionalists within the church elected Thoma Darmo as a rival patriarch to Shimun XXI Eshai, forming the independent Ancient Church of the East, based in Baghdad, Iraq.
In 1972, Shimun decided to step down as patriarch, and the following year he got married, in contravention to longstanding church custom. This led to a synod in 1973 in which further reforms were introduced, the most significant of which included the permanent abolition of hereditary succession — a practice introduced in the middle of the fifteenth century by Patriarch Shemʿon IV Basidi (who had died in 1497) — and it was also decided that Shimun should be reinstated. The second matter was supposed to be settled at another synod in 1975; however, Shimun was assassinated by an estranged relative before this could take place.
Patriarch Dinkha IV
In 1976, Dinkha IV was elected as Shimun XXI Eshai's successor. The 33-year-old Dinkha had previously been Metropolitan of Tehran, and operated his see there until the Iran–Iraq War of 1980–1988. Thereafter, Dinkha IV went into exile in the United States and transferred the Patriarchal See to Chicago. Much of his patriarchate had been concerned with tending to the Assyrian–Chaldean–Syriac diaspora community and with ecumenical efforts to strengthen relations with other churches. On 26 March 2015, Dinkha IV died in the United States, leaving the Assyrian Church of the East in a period of sede vacante until 18 September 2015. During that time, Aprem Mooken served as the custodian of the Patriarchate of Seleucia-Ctesiphon.
Patriarch Gewargis III
On 18 September 2015, the Holy Synod of the Assyrian Church of the East elected the Metropolitan of Iraq, Jordan, and Russia, Warda Sliwa, to succeed the late Dinkha IV as Catholicos-Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East. On 27 September 2015, he was consecrated as Catholicos-Patriarch in the Cathedral Church of St. John the Baptist, in Erbil, Iraq. Upon his consecration, he assumed the ecclesiastical name Gewargis III.
Church leaders have proposed moving the Patriarchal See from Chicago back to Erbil.
There have also been talks of reunification. In the Common Christological Declaration Between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East in 1994, the two Churches recognized the legitimacy and rightness of each other's titles for Mary.
Theologically, the Assyrian Church of the East still adheres to the Church of the East's traditional Christology, that is often labeled as Nestorian. The use and exact meaning of that term has been the subject of many debates—not only throughout history but also in modern times—since the Assyrian Church of the East has distinctive views on several christological questions and claims that its theological doctrines and traditions are essentially orthodox, while admitting the need for further inter-Christian dialog that would resolve various questions in the field of comparative christological terminology. Unlike most other churches that trace their origins to antiquity, the modern Assyrian Church of the East is not in communion with any other church.
The Nestorian nature of Assyrian Christianity remains a matter of contention. Elements of the Nestorian doctrine were explicitly repudiated by Patriarch Dinkha IV on the occasion of his accession in 1976.
The Christology of the Church of the East has its roots in the Antiochene theological tradition of the early Church. The founders of Assyrian theology are Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia, both of whom taught at Antioch. "Antiochene" is a modern designation given to the style of theology associated with the early Church at Antioch, as contrasted with the theology of the Church of Alexandria.
Antiochene theology emphasizes Christ's humanity and the reality of the moral choices he faced. In order to preserve the impassibility of Christ's Divine Nature, the unity of His person is defined in a looser fashion than in the Alexandrian tradition. The normative Christology of the Assyrian church was written by Babai the Great (551–628) during the controversy that followed the 431 Council of Ephesus. Babai held that within Christ there exist two qnômâ (ܩܢܘܡܐ) (Syriac equivalent for Greek term hypostasis), unmingled, but everlastingly united in the one prosopon (personality) of Christ.
The precise Christological teachings of Nestorius are shrouded in obscurity. Wary of monophysitism, Nestorius rejected Cyril's theory of a hypostatic union, proposing instead a union of will. Nestorianism has come to mean radical dyophysitism, in which Christ's two natures are eternally separate, though it is doubtful whether Nestorius ever taught such a doctrine. Nestorius' rejection of the term Theotokos ('God-bearer', or 'Mother of God') has traditionally been held as evidence that he asserted the existence of two persons — not merely two natures — in Jesus Christ, but there exists no evidence that Nestorius denied Christ's oneness. In the controversy that followed the Council of Ephesus, the term "Nestorian" was applied to all doctrine upholding a strictly Antiochene Christology. In consequence, the Church of the East was labelled Nestorian, though its theology is not radically dyophysite.
The church employs the Syriac dialect of Eastern Aramaic in its liturgy, the East Syrian Rite, which includes three anaphoras, attributed to Thaddeus (Addai) and Mari, Theodore of Mopsuestia and later also Nestorius.
The Assyrian Church of the East does not currently make great use of icons, but they are present in its tradition. Opposition to religious images eventually became the norm due to the rise of Islam in the region, which forbade any type of depictions of saints and biblical prophets. As such, the church was forced to get rid of her icons.
A Nestorian Peshitta Gospel book written in Estrangela, from the 13th century, currently resided at the State Library of Berlin. This illustrated manuscript from northern Mesopotamia or Tur Abdin proves that in the 13th century the church was not yet aniconic. Another Nestorian Gospel manuscript preserved in the Bibliothèque nationale de France, which contains an illustration that depicts Jesus Christ (not a crucifix) in the circle of a ringed cross (in the form of celtic cross) surrounded by four angels.
Three Syriac manuscripts from early 19th century and earlier—they were edited into a compilation titled The Book of Protection by Hermann Gollancz—containing a number of illustrations which are more or less crude. These manuscripts prove the continuous use of images. Moreover, a life-size male stucco figure was discovered in a church of Seleucia-Ctesiphon from the late 6th century. Beneath this church were found the remains of an earlier church. Although it cannot be determined which Nestorian Church was involved, the discovery nevertheless proves that the Church of the East also used figurative representations.
The twelve apostles are gathered around Peter at Pentecost, from the Nestorian Peshitta Gospel.
The Assyrian Church of the East is governed by an episcopal polity, the same as other apostolic churches. The church maintains a system of geographical parishes organized into dioceses and archdioceses. The Catholicos-Patriarch is the head of the church. Its synod is composed of bishops who oversee individual dioceses and metropolitans who oversee episcopal dioceses in their territorial jurisdiction.
The Chaldean Syrian Church, which encompasses India and the Persian Gulf, is the largest diocese of the church. Its history goes back to the Church of the East that established a presence in Kerala, but the two communities maintained only a sporadic connection for several centuries, and consistent relations were only established with the arrival of the Portuguese in India around 1500. The church is represented by the Assyrian Church of the East and is in communion with it.
The patriarchal seat was moved several times throughout history. Up to the 1804, patriarchs of the senior Eliya line resided in the ancient Rabban Hormizd Monastery, while patriarchs of the junior Shimun line resided in the Cathedral Church of Mar Shallita, in the village of Qudshanis in the Hakkari Mountains of the Ottoman Empire, and continued to do so up to the First World War. After the beginning of conflict in 1915, the patriarchs temporarily resided between Urmia and Salmas, and after 1918 the patriarchs resided in Mosul. After the Simele Massacre of 1933, the then patriarch Shimun XXI Eshai was exiled to Cyprus due to his agitation for independence. In 1940 he was welcomed to the United States where he set up his residence in Chicago, and administered the United States and Canada as his patriarchal province. The patriarchate was then moved to Modesto, California in 1954, and finally to San Francisco in 1958 due to health issues. After the assassination of the patriarch and the election of Dinkha IV in 1976, the patriarchate was temporarily located in Tehran, where the new patriarch was living at the time. After the Iran–Iraq War and the Iranian Revolution, the patriarchate again returned to Chicago, where it remained until 2015, when it reestablished itself in the Middle East by organizing in Erbil's Ankawa district in Iraq after Gewargis III was installed as Catholicos-Patriarch. The Diocese of Eastern United States served as the patriarch's province from 1994 until 2012.
Due to the unstable political, religious and economic situation in the church's historical homeland of the Middle East, many of the church members now reside in Western countries. Churches and dioceses have been established throughout Europe, America, and Oceania. The largest expatriate concentration of church members is in the United States, mainly situated in Illinois and California.
- Archdiosese of India Chaldean Syrian Church – remains in communion and is the biggest province of the church with close to 30 active churches, primary and secondary schools, hospitals etc.
- Archdiocese of Iraq – covers the indigenous territory of the church in Iraq. The archdiocese's territory includes the cities and surroundings of Baghdad, Basra, Kirkuk, and Mosul.
- Archdiocese of Australia, New Zealand and Lebanon – established in October 1984.
- Diocese of Syria – jurisdiction lies throughout all Syria, particularly in the al-Hasakah Governorate, where most of the community resides in al-Hasakah, Qamishli and the 35 villages along the Khabur River. There are also small communities in Damascus and Aleppo.
- Diocese of Iran – territory includes the capital Tehran, the Urmia and Salmas plains.
- Diocese of Nohadra and Russia – established in 1999 with jurisdiction includes the indigenous communities of Dohuk, along with Russia and ex-Soviet states such as Armenia.
- Diocese of Scandinavia and Germany – territory lies in western Europe and includes close to 5 sovereign states: Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Finland and Norway.
- Diocese of Eastern USA – formerly the patriarchal archdiocese from 1994 until 2012. The territory includes the large Illinois community, along with smaller parishes in Michigan, New England and New York.
- Diocese of California – jurisdiction includes parishes in Western USA and northern California. Some of the parishes are San Francisco, San Jose, Modesto, Turlock, Ceres, Seattle, and Sacramento.
- Diocese of Western USA-South – jurisdiction includes parishes in Arizona and southern California.
- Diocese of Canada – includes the territory of Toronto, Windsor, Hamilton and all Canada.
- Diocese of Erbil
- Diocese of Victoria and New Zealand – includes Melbourne and New Zealand.
- Diocese of Western Europe – territory lies in Western Europe and includes seven sovereign states of UK, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria, The Netherlands and Greece.
- Diocese of Bagdad, Ukraine and Georgia.
Members of the Holy Synod
For April 2020
- Mar Gewargis Sliwa: 121st Catholicos-Patriarch
- Aprem Mooken: Metropolitan of Malabar and India
- Meelis Zaia: Metropolitan of Australia, New Zealand and Lebanon
- Awa Royel: Bishop of California
- Aprim Khamis: Bishop of Western United States
- Emmanual Yousip: Bishop of Canada
- Odisho Awahram: Bishop of Europe
- Aprem Natniel: Bishop of Syria
- Isaac Yousif: Bishop of Dohuk-Erbil and Russia
- Yohannan Yoseph: Bishop in India
- Awgin Kuriakose: Bishop in India
- Narsai Benyamin: Bishop of Iran
- Paulus Benjamin: Bishop of the Eastern United States
- Abris Awshalem: Bishop of Erbil
- Benyamin Elya: Bishop of Victoria & New Zealand
- Abraham Youkhanis: Bishop of Western Europe
- Elia Tamras: Bishop of Baghdad, Ukraine and Georgia.
Pope John XXIII invited many other Christian denominations, including the Assyrian Church of the East, to send "observers" to the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965). These observers, graciously received and seated as honored guests right in front of the podium on the floor of the council chamber, did not participate in the council's debate, but they mingled freely with the Catholic bishops and theologians who constituted the council, and with the other observers as well, in the break area during the council sessions. There, cordial conversations began a rapprochement that has blossomed into expanding relations among the Catholic Church, the churches of the Orthodox Communion, and the ancient Churches of the East.
On November 11, 1994, a historic meeting between Patriarch Dinkha IV and Pope John Paul II took place in Rome. The two patriarchs signed a document titled "Common Christological Declaration Between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East". One side effect of this meeting was that the Assyrian Church's relationship with the fellow Chaldean Catholic Church began to improve.
In 1996, Patriarch Dinkha IV signed an agreement of cooperation with the Chaldean Catholic Church Patriarch of Baghdad, Raphael I Bidawid, in Southfield, Michigan, Bidawid himself being keen to heal theological divisions among Assyrians of all denominations. In 1997, he entered into negotiations with the Syriac Orthodox Church and the two churches ceased anathematizing each other.
The lack of a coherent institution narrative in the Anaphora of Addai and Mari, which dates to apostolic times, has caused many Western Christians, and especially Roman Catholics, to doubt the validity of this anaphora, used extensively by the Assyrian Church of the East, as a prayer of consecration of the eucharistic elements. In 2001, after a study of this issue, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI), then Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, promulgated a declaration approved by Pope John Paul II stating that this is a valid anaphora. This declaration opened the door to a joint synodal decree officially implementing the present Guidelines for Admission to the Eucharist between the Chaldean Church and the Assyrian Church of the East, which the synods of the Assyrian Church of the East and the Chaldean Catholic Church signed and promulgated on 20 July 2001.
This joint synodal decree provided that:
- Assyrian faithful may participate and receive Holy Communion in a Chaldean celebration of the Holy Eucharist
- Chaldean catholic faithful may participate and receive Holy Communion in an Assyrian Church celebration of the Holy Eucharist, even if celebrated using the Anaphora of Addai and Mari in its original form
- Assyrian clergy are invited (but not obliged) to insert the institution narrative into the Anaphora of Addai and Mari when Chaldean faithful are present.
The joint synodal decree identified several issues that require resolution to permit a relationship of full communion,[c] though from an ecumenical perspective it marks a major step toward full collaboration in the pastoral care of their members.
- Abda of Hira
- Chaldean Syrian Church in India (also known as Assyrian Church of the East in India)
- Church of the East
- Common Christological Declaration Between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East
- Dioceses of the Church of the East to 1318
- Dioceses of the Church of the East, 1318–1552
- Dioceses of the Church of the East after 1552
- List of Patriarchs of the Church of the East
- Assyrian settlements
- Assyrian Tribes
- The justice of imputing Nestorianism to Nestorius, whom the Assyrian Church of the East venerated as a saint, is disputed. David Wilmshurst states that for centuries "the word 'Nestorian' was used both as a term of abuse by those who disapproved of the traditional East Syrian theology, as a term of pride by many of its defenders [...] and as a neutral and convenient descriptive term by others. Nowadays it is generally felt that the term carries a stigma". Sebastian P. Brock says: "The association between the Church of the East and Nestorius is of a very tenuous nature, and to continue to call that Church 'Nestorian' is, from a historical point of view, totally misleading and incorrect – quite apart from being highly offensive and a breach of ecumenical good manners." Apart from its religious meaning, the word "Nestorian" has also been used in an ethnic sense, as shown by the phrase "Catholic Nestorians". In light of the persistently misused 'Nestorian' term, Sebastian Brock, a Fellow of the British Academy, in his 1996 article entitled: The 'Nestorian' Church: a lamentable misnomer, published in the Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, called the designation for the Assyrian Church of the East as the "'Nestorian Church'"as "..both inappropriate and misleading..", quoted in the larger context: "..the term 'Nestorian Church' has become the standard designation for the ancient oriental church which in the past called itself 'The Church of the East', but which today prefers the fuller title 'The Assyrian Church of the East'. Such a designation is not only discourteous to modern members of this venerable church, but also – as this paper aims to show – both inappropriate and misleading."
- In 1994, the Common Christological Declaration between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East marked the resolution of a dispute between those two churches that had existed since the Council of Ephesus. They expressed their common understanding of doctrine concerning the divinity and humanity of Christ, and recognized the legitimacy and rightness of their respective descriptions of Mary as, on the Assyrian side, "the Mother of Christ our God and Saviour", and, on the Catholic side, as "the Mother of God" and also as "the Mother of Christ".
- From a Catholic canonical point of view, provisions of the joint synodal decree are fully consistent with the provisions of canon 671 of the 1991 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, which states: "If necessity requires it or genuine spiritual advantage suggests it and provided that the danger of error or indifferentism is avoided, it is permitted for Catholic Christian faithful, for whom it is physically or morally impossible to approach a Catholic minister, to receive the sacraments of penance, the Eucharist and anointing of the sick from non-Catholic ministers, in whose Churches these sacraments are valid. 3. Likewise Catholic ministers licitly administer the Sacraments of Penance, the Eucharist and Anointing of the Sick to Christian faithful of Eastern Churches, who do not have full communion with the Catholic Church, if they ask for them on their own and are properly disposed." Canons 843 and 844 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law make similar provisions for the Latin Church. The Assyrian Church of the East follows an open communion approach, allowing any baptized Christian to receive its Eucharist after confessing the Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist so there is also no alteration of Assyrian practice.
- J. F. Bethune-Baker, Nestorius and His Teaching (Cambridge University Press 2014), chapter VI
- Walbert Bühlmann, Dreaming about the Church (Rowman & Littlefield 1987), pp. 111 and 164
- David Wilmshurst, The Ecclesiastical Organisation of the Church of the East, 1318–1913 (Peeters 2000), p. 4
- Sebastian P. Brock, Fire from Heaven: Studies in Syriac Theology and Liturgy (Ashgate 2006), p. 14
- Joost Jongerden, Jelle Verheij, Social Relations in Ottoman Diyarbekir, 1870–1915 (BRILL 2012), p. 21
- Gertrude Lowthian Bell, Amurath to Amurath (Heinemann 1911), p. 281
- Gabriel Oussani, "The Modern Chaldeans and Nestorians, and the Study of Syriac among them" in Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 22 (1901), p. 81; cf. Albrecht Classen (editor), East Meets West in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times (Walter de Gruyter 2013), p. 704
- Brock, S. P. (1996). "The 'Nestorian' Church: a lamentable misnomer". Bulletin of the John Rylands Library. 1996;78(3):23–35. Retrieved 2019-10-25.
- Common Christological Declaration between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East Archived January 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- Joshua Castellino (2013-04-25). Minority Rights in the Middle East. ISBN 978-0191668883.
Most Assyrians are affiliated to one of four churches: the Syrian Orthodox Church, the Syrian Catholic Church, the Chaldean Uniate (Catholic), and the Assyrian Church of the East (Nestorian)
- Tang, Li; Winkler, Dietmar W. (2013). From the Oxus River to the Chinese Shores: Studies on East Syriac Christianity in China and Central Asia. ISBN 9783643903297.
The so-called Nestorian Church is also known as the Assyrian Church of the East.
- Lee Samuel (October 2009). Understanding Japan Through the Eyes of Christian Faith Third Edition. ISBN 9789490179014.
Nestorian missionaries who represented the Assyrian Church of the East
- Holy Apostolic Assyrian Church of the East Official News Website
- "Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East — World Council of Churches". www.oikoumene.org.
- Binns 2002, p. 28.
- Hunter 2014, p. 601-620.
- Cite error: The named reference
Josephwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Hunter 2014, p. 614-615.
- "Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East". Oikoumene.org. Retrieved 2016-05-15.
St Peter, the chief of the Apostles added his blessing to the Church of the East at the time of his visit to the see at Babylon, in the earliest days of the Church: '... The chosen church which is at Babylon, and Mark, my son, salute you ... greet one another with a holy kiss ...' (I Peter 5:13–14).
- Wilmshurst 2000.
- Baum & Winkler 2003.
- Lemmens 1926, p. 17-28.
- Habbi 1966, p. 99-132.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 22.
- Gulik 1904, p. 261-277.
- Hage 2007, p. 473.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 22, 42 194, 260, 355.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 24.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 24-25.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 25.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 205, 263.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 28, 195, 242, 250–251, 355.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 263.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 22-23.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 23.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 23-24.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 24, 315.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 25, 316.
- Baum & Winkler 2003, p. 114, 118, 174–175.
- Murre van den Berg 1999, p. 235-264.
- Wigram 1914.
- Baum & Winkler 2003, p. 120, 175.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 316-319, 356.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 125, 263–264.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 33, 212.
- Baum & Winkler 2003, p. 129-130.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 35-36.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 275-276.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 324.
- Wilmshurst 2000, p. 36, 281, 314.
- Cross & Livingstone 2005, p. 354.
- Baum & Winkler 2003, p. 143-144.
- Baum & Winkler 2003, p. 144.
- Baum & Winkler 2003, p. 147-148.
- Baum & Winkler 2003, p. 148-149.
- Baum & Winkler 2003, p. 149.
- Baum & Winkler 2003, p. 150-155.
- "Holy Synod Announcement – Passing of Catholicos-Patriarch". Holy Synod of the Assyrian Church of the East. Archived from the original on 2015-10-08. Retrieved 2015-09-18.
- "Notice from the Locum Tenens". Holy Synod of the Assyrian Church of the East. Archived from the original on 2015-05-24. Retrieved 2015-09-18.
- Nagl, Kurt (September 26, 2015). "Assyrian Church of the East elects new leader". Rudaw Media Network.
- "Common Christological declaration between the Catholic church and the Assyrian Church of the East". The Holy See. November 11, 1994. Archived from the original on January 4, 2009. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
- "Nestorian". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
- Brock 2006.
- Hill 1988, p. 107.
- Cross & Livingstone 2005, p. 79.
- Cross & Livingstone 2005, p. 339.
- "The Shadow of Nestorius".
- Baumer, Christoph (2016). The Church of the East: An illustrated History of Assyrian Christianity (New Edition). London: I.B. Tauris. pp. 75 and 94. ISBN 978-1-78453-683-1.
- Jean-Pierre Drège (1992). Marco Polo y la Ruta de la Seda. Coll. "Aguilar Universal" (in Spanish). 31. Translated by Mari Pepa López Carmona. Madrid: Aguilar, S. A. de Ediciones. pp. 43 and 187. ISBN 978-84-0360-187-1. OCLC 1024004171.
Doctrinas persasCS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "The Church of the East – Mark Dickens". The American Foundation for Syriac Studies. 2012-10-05. Retrieved 2012-12-25.
- "Our Churches".
- Mooken 2003, p. 18.
- "Guidelines for admission to the Eucharist between the Chaldean Church and the Assyrian Church of the East". www.vatican.va.
- "see for example". Churchoftheeastflint.org. Archived from the original on 2011-06-27. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
- Aboona, Hirmis (2008). Assyrians, Kurds, and Ottomans: Intercommunal Relations on the Periphery of the Ottoman Empire. Amherst: Cambria Press. ISBN 9781604975833.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Abramtsov, David (1960). "The Assyrians of Persia and the Russian Orthodox Church". One Church. 14: 155–169.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Assemani, Giuseppe Simone (1719). Bibliotheca orientalis clementino-vaticana. 1. Roma.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Assemani, Giuseppe Luigi (1775). De catholicis seu patriarchis Chaldaeorum et Nestorianorum commentarius historico-chronologicus. Roma.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Assemani, Giuseppe Luigi (2004). History of the Chaldean and Nestorian patriarchs. Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Badger, George Percy (1852). The Nestorians and Their Rituals. 1. London: Joseph Masters.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Badger, George Percy (1852). The Nestorians and Their Rituals. 2. London: Joseph Masters.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Baum, Wilhelm; Winkler, Dietmar W. (2003). The Church of the East: A Concise History. London-New York: Routledge-Curzon. ISBN 9781134430192.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Baumer, Christoph (2006). The Church of the East: An Illustrated History of Assyrian Christianity. London-New York: Tauris.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Becchetti, Filippo Angelico (1796). Istoria degli ultimi quattro secoli della Chiesa. 10. Roma.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Binns, John (2002). An Introduction to the Christian Orthodox Churches. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521667388.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Brock, Sebastian P. (2006). Fire from Heaven: Studies in Syriac Theology and Liturgy. Aldershot: Ashgate. ISBN 9780754659082.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Coakley, James F. (1992). The Church of the East and the Church of England: A History of the Archbishop of Canterbury's Assyrian Mission. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780198267447.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Coakley, James F. (1996). "The Church of the East since 1914". The Bulletin of the John Rylands Library. 78 (3): 179–198. doi:10.7227/BJRL.78.3.14.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Coakley, James F. (2001). "Mar Elia Aboona und the history of the East Syrian patriarchate". 85: 119–138. Cite journal requires
|journal=(help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Cross, Frank L.; Livingstone, Elizabeth A., eds. (2005). Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3rd revised ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192802903 https://books.google.com/books?id=fUqcAQAAQBAJ. Missing or empty
|title=(help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Frazee, Charles A. (2006) . Catholics and Sultans: The Church and the Ottoman Empire 1453-1923. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521027007.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Gulik, Wilhelm van (1904). "Die Konsistorialakten über die Begründung des uniert-chaldäischen Patriarchates von Mosul unter Papst Julius III" (PDF). Oriens Christianus. 4: 261–277.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Habbi, Joseph (1966). "Signification de l'union chaldéenne de Mar Sulaqa avec Rome en 1553". L'Orient Syrien. 11: 99–132, 199–230.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hage, Wolfgang (2007). Das orientalische Christentum. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer Verlag. ISBN 9783170176683.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hill, Henry, ed. (1988). Light from the East: A Symposium on the Oriental Orthodox and Assyrian Churches. Toronto: Anglican Book Centre. ISBN 9780919891906.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hunter, Erica C. D. (1996). "The church of the East in central Asia". The Bulletin of the John Rylands Library. 78 (3): 129–142. doi:10.7227/BJRL.78.3.10.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hunter, Erica C. D. (2014). "The Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East". In Leustean, Lucian N. (ed.). Eastern Christianity and Politics in the Twenty-First Century. London-New York: Routledge. pp. 601–620. ISBN 9781317818663.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Jakob, Joachim (2014). Ostsyrische Christen und Kurden im Osmanischen Reich des 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhunderts. Münster: LIT Verlag. ISBN 9783643506160.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Jenkins, Philip (2008). The Lost History of Christianity: The Thousand-Year Golden Age of the Church in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia - and How It Died. San Francisco: HarperOne. ISBN 9780061472800.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Kitchen, Robert A. (2012). "The Assyrian Church of the East". In Casiday, Augustine M. (ed.). The Orthodox Christian World. London-New York: Routledge. pp. 78–88. ISBN 9780415455169.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Lampart, Albert (1966). Ein Märtyrer der Union mit Rom: Joseph I. 1681–1696, Patriarch der Chaldäer. Einsiedeln: Benziger Verlag.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Lemmens, Leonhard (1926). "Relationes nationem Chaldaeorum inter et Custodiam Terrae Sanctae (1551–1629)". Archivum Franciscanum Historicum. 19: 17–28.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- O'Mahony, Anthony (2006). "Syriac Christianity in the modern Middle East". In Angold, Michael (ed.). The Cambridge History of Christianity: Eastern Christianity. 5. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 511–536. ISBN 9780521811132.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Mooken, Aprem (2003). "The History of the Assyrian Church of the East in the Twentieth Century". Inflibnet. Kottayam: St. Ephrem Ecumenical Research Institute.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Murre van den Berg, Heleen H. L. (1999). "The Patriarchs of the Church of the East from the Fifteenth to Eighteenth Centuries" (PDF). Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies. 2 (2): 235–264. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2012-11-15.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Nichols, Aidan (2010) . Rome and the Eastern Churches: A Study in Schism (2nd revised ed.). San Francisco: Ignatius Press. ISBN 9781586172824.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Садо, Стефан (1996). "Российская православная миссия в Урмии (1898-1918)" (PDF). Христианское чтение. 13: 73–112.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Seleznyov, Nikolai N. (2010). "Nestorius of Constantinople: Condemnation, Suppression, Veneration: With special reference to the role of his name in East-Syriac Christianity". Journal of Eastern Christian Studies. 62 (3–4): 165–190.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Vine, Aubrey R. (1937). The Nestorian Churches. London: Independent Press. ISBN 9780404161880.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Vosté, Jacques Marie (1925). "Missio duorum fratrum Melitensium O. P. in Orientem saec. XVI et relatio, nunc primum edita, eorum quae in istis regionibus gesserunt". Analecta Ordinis Praedicatorum. 33 (4): 261–278.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Vosté, Jacques Marie (1931). "Mar Iohannan Soulaqa, premier Patriarche des Chaldéens, martyr de l'union avec Rome (†1555)". Angelicum. 8: 187–234.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Wigram, William Ainger (1914). The Cradle of Mankind: Life in Eastern Kurdistan (PDF). London: Adam and Charles Black.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Wigram, William Ainger (1929). The Assyrians and Their Neighbours. London: G. Bell & Sons.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Wilmshurst, David (2000). The Ecclesiastical Organisation of the Church of the East, 1318–1913. Louvain: Peeters Publishers. ISBN 9789042908765.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Wilmshurst, David (2011). The martyred Church: A History of the Church of the East. London: East & West Publishing Limited. ISBN 9781907318047.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (November 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Official website
- Assyrian Church of the East at Curlie
- An Unofficial Website on the Church of the East – An informational site
- Article on the Assyrian Church of the East by Ronald Roberson on the CNEWA website
- Documentary film 'The last Assyrians', a history of Aramaic speaking Christians
- Qambel Maran- Syriac chants from South India- a review and liturgical music tradition of Syriac Christians revisited
- Traditions and rituals among the Syrian Christians of Kerala
- Guidelines for Chaldean Catholics receiving the Eucharist in Assyrian Churches
- Statement of the Holy Synod Of The Coptic Orthodox Church regarding the Dialogue between the Syrian and Assyrian Churches at the Wayback Machine (archived August 7, 2004)
- Khader Khano, the first native-born Assyrian to be ordained priest in Jerusalem in over 100 years
- Common Christological Declaration Between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East, 1994